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Full text of "Andover, Massachusetts : Proceedings at the celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the incorporation of the town, May 20, 1896"

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NDOVER Massachu- 
setts Book of Proceed- 
ings at the Celebration 
of theTwo Hundred and Fiftieth 
Anniversary of theTown's Incor- 
poration I 646 - I 896^e^e^e^e^ 



ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



PROCEEDINGS 



CELEBRATION 



OF THE 



^UDO ^\in}>u}> arib ^ifiki^ ^nrxiy^ttBax^ 



OF THE 



INCORPORATION OF THE TOWN 



MAY 20, 1896 



Andover, Mass. 

THE ANDOVER PRESS 

1897 



CONTENTS 



^veCiminatr^ (§ct\on of ^§e ^oi»n 

Action at Town Meeting, March, 1894, 
First Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen, 
Second Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen, 
Third Annual Report of Committee of Fifteen, 

Financial Statement, 

Committees, 

Invited Guests, ....... 

Official Program, ....... 



13 
14 
IS 

19 

22 

23 
26 
29 



^§^ CeMratiott 



Sunday at the Churches, 


31 


Historical Tableaux, .... 


34 


The Procession, 


37 


Children's Entertainment, 


40 


The Sports, 


41 


Band Concerts, 


42 



^itetav^ <S!\^c\BtB at t^^ C^wcc^ 



Oration, by Albert Poor, Esq., 
Poem, by Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, 

READ BY Prof. John W. Churchill, 



43 
96 



^§e (gan<\\ttt 



Address of the President, Prof. J. W. Churchill, 
Address of Acting Governor Roger Wolcott, 
Address of Hon. William S. Knox, 
Sentiment from Hon. George O. Shattuck, 
Telegram from Rev. Dr. William Jewett Tucker 
Address of Hollis R. Bailey, Esq., 
Address of Capt. Francis H. Appleton, 
Address of Hon. Moses T. Stevens, 
Address of Capt. John G. B. Adams, 
Address of Albert Poor, Esq., 
Sentiment from Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, 
Address of Prof. John Phelps Taylor, 



115 
116 
120 
122 
123 
123 
127 
129 

134 
136 
138 
138 



^oan CoUtciion (xnb J^xetot'xc ^xk& 

Report of Committee, ....... 

Portraits and Pictures of Andover Men and Women, 

Phillips Academy, 

Andover Theological Seminary, 

Abbot Academy, 

Punchard Free School, . 

Memorial Hall Library, 

Church Exhibit, 

List of Contributors, 

List of Houses and Sites, 

Pre-Historic Sites, . 

List of Historic Sites in the North Parish, 

Manufactures and Trades Exhibit, 



144 
146 

15s 
156 

157 
158 
158 
158 
162 
167 
172 
172 
173 




/ , % 




%p:h7^66?- 








LA^r. H0>^ 







"^^rooN^ 



PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS 



In March, 1894, the citizens of Andover, assembled in 
annual town meeting, took the first steps in preparation for 
the proper celebration of the town's Two Hundred and 
Fiftieth Anniversary, by action upon the following article: 

" To see what action the town will take in regard to 
the proper observance of the town's Two Hundred and 
Fiftieth Anniversary." 

A vote was passed that a committee of fifteen be ap- 
pointed to formulate a plan and report at the next annual 
town meeting, and the moderator appointed the following 
gentlemen as members of that committee: 

C. F. P. Bancroft, George Gould, 

Joseph M. Bradley, Ballard Holt, 

Samuel H. Boutwell, William Marland, 

John N. Cole, George H. Poor, 

William C Donald, Alfred L. Ripley, 

George W, Foster, Joseph W. Smith, 

Frederick W. Greene, John Phelps Taylor, 
Howell F. Wilson. 

The work of this committee is told in the following de- 
tailed reports of the chairman made at the annual town meet- 
ings of the years 1895, 1896, and 1897. 

These reports follow at this time that the official record 
of the preparations for, and observance of, the events of the 
day may all be found together in this " Book of Proceedings." 



14 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

At the annual town meeting in 1895, the committee made 
its first annual report showing progress as follows: 

FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE 
OF FIFTEEN 

The Committee of Fifteen appointed by the town at the last 
annual meeting to formulate a plan for the proper observance of the 
250th anniversary of the incorporation of Andover beg leave to report 
as follows : — 

The members of the committee as appointed are : 

C. F. P. Bancroft, George Gould, 

Joseph M. Bradley, Ballard Holt, 

Samuel H. Boutwell, William Marland, 

John N. Cole, George H. Poor, 

William C. Donald, Alfred L. Ripley, 

George W. Foster, Joseph W. Smith, 

Frederick W. Greene, John Phelps Taylor, 
Howell F. Wilson. 

The first meeting of the committee was held for the purpose 
of organization, at the School Committee Room, March 17, 1894. 
C. F. P Bancroft was chosen chairman, and John N. Cole, secretary. 
The general purpose of the committee and the main features of the 
proposed celebration were considered and further action postponed to 
a subsequent meeting. 

A second meeting was held February 13, 1895, and a third on 
February 21, 1895, and it was voted to report to the town the follow- 
ing recommendations : 

1. That the celebration be held on Wednesday, the 6th of May, 
1896, this day being the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
incorporation of the town by the General Court. 

2. That the town of Andover invite the town of North Andover, 
and the citizens thereof, to participate in such way as may be con- 
venient and agreeable to them in the celebration of the incorporation 
of the original township in which they have a common pride and in- 
heritance. 

3. That on the Sunday preceding the 6th of May, 1896, the 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 1$ 

ministers in the several churches in Andover and North Andover be 
invited and requested to preach memorial sermons to their respective 
congregations. 

4. That Albert Poor, Esq., a lineal descendant of one of the 
original proprietors, and a native citizen of this ancient township be 
invited to deliver a commemorative historical address. 

5. That Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs be invited to prepare a 
poem for the occasion, and that Professor John Wesley Churchill be 
invited to read the same. 

6. That all further details, including whatever is desirable in a 
civic celebration of this character and suitable to this community and 
to our history, such as the ringing of bells, the firing of cannon, the 
decoration of public and private buildings, vocal and martial music, 
athletic games, children's festivals, processions, invitations and hospi- 
tality, transportation, finance, historical and antiquarian collections, 
printing and publication, and any and all other things proper and 
necessary for the worthy celebration of the quarter-millenial history of 
this town be entrusted to the committee, appointed by the town for 
the purpose, to report at the next annual meeting, or at such other 
time as may be found convenient to the committee. 

7. That the town authorize the committee to appoint sub-com- 
mittees and fill vacancies. 

Respectfully submitted. 
For the Committee, 

Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman. 
Andover, Mass., March 4, 1895. 

The report was accepted and adopted, and the arrange- 
ments for all details of the celebration u^ere thus continued in 
the care of the original committee. 

In March, 1896, the committee again reported and pre- 
sented a complete outline of the day's observance. 

SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE 
OF FIFTEEN 

At the Annual Meeting of 1895 your Committee of Fifteen on 
the 250 th Anniversary of the Incorporation of Andover, appointed at 
the Annual Meeting of 1894, reported progress, and presented certain 



l6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

recommendations and appointments, and a general outline of a civic 
celebration of the 250th Anniversary of the Town. That report was 
accepted, and its recommendations were adopted. This report, and 
the action thereon, may be found on pages 15, 16, and 17 of the 
Annual Reports of the Town Officers for the year ending January 15, 
1896. 

During the year your Committee held meetings October 26, Novem- 
ber 13, December 11, December 20, February 3, February 21 ; many 
meetings have been held by the sub-committees. 

There have been two changes in the Committee : Frederick W. 
Greene, having resigned his charge in the West Parish and removed 
to Middletown, Ct., his place was filled, in accordance with the author- 
ity of the vote of the Town, by the appointment of Peter D. Smith ; 
George Gould, having removed temporarily from the town, asked to 
be released from further service on the Committee, and his place was 
filled by the appointment of Arthur Bliss. 

The Committee deemed it wise to change the date of the celebra- 
tion from May 6 to May 20, and accordingly to ask the pastors of the 
churches to preach the memorial sermons on May 17 instead of May 
3 next. 

The Committee, as authorized by the Town, has created sub- 
committees as follows : 

Invitation and Guests — C. F. P. Bancroft, chairman. 

Evening Reception and Historical Tableaux — A. L. Ripley, 
chairman. 

Decorations — George W. Foster, chairman. 

Music — Arthur Bliss, chairman. 

Salute and Fireworks — John L. Smith, chairman. 

Procession — Peter D. Smith, chairman. 

Printing — John N. Cole, chairman. 

Banquet — William Marland, chairman. 

Loan Collection and Historic Sites — Samuel H. Boutwell, chair- 
man. 

Transportation — Howell F. Wilson, chairman. 

Sports — Joseph M. Bradley, chairman. 

Children's Festival — Joseph W. Smith, chairman. 

They have constituted themselves the Finance Committee, with 
George H. Poor as chairman, to which as General Committee also, 



3SOTH ANNIVERSARY 1 7 

each sub-committee is to report. Each sub-committee has for its 
chairman or in its membership a member of the General Committee, 
so that a general unity of plan and effort may be readily secured. 
About one hundred and seventeen men and women were invited to 
serve the town on these sub-committees, of whom only two have 
requested to be excused. 

In addition to the appointment of Orator and Poet, as voted at 
the last town meeting, the Committee of Fifteen have appointed Rev. 
Frank R. Shipman, pastor of our oldest church, chaplain of the day, 
Peter D. Smith, chief marshal, and John Wesley Churchill, toast- 
master. 

The provisional program adopted by your Committee includes 
the following as possible features : 

For the evening of May 19, a general reception with 
music and tableaux illustrating distinctive events and scenes 
in the town's history. 

For the morning of May 20, sunrise bells and artillery 
salute. 

A procession, in which the schools may have a promi- 
nent place, and the various organizations of the town. 
The literary exercises. 

The dinner, followed by addresses from distinguished 
guests and others. 

Various entertainment for the children. 
Field sports and athletic games. 

A loan collection in some suitable place, with objects 
of special historical, industrial and personal interest. 

There has been a very general interest in the matter 
of decorations, and the Committee expect such general and 
hearty response from families and firms, especially from the 
children, as will make a May festival of great beauty. 

For the evening of May 20, the Committee has con- 
sidered the possibility of an out-of-door concert, with a dis- 
play of fireworks, and possibly one or more in-door prom- 
enade concerts at the same time. 

Your Committee has been guided by a few broad principles. We 
cannot vie with the larger and richer communities in numbers and 
display. We have not the means of housing and entertaining a great 
throng of spectators, who have little interest in our celebration. We 
must therefore study to make it dignified and worthy, rather than 



1 8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

elaborate and costly. We have no one auditorium in which we can 
gather a very large assembly. The committee has sought to provide 
a variety of exercises, some of which may properly be in progress at 
the same time, and which at all events will appeal to a variety of 
differing interests, thereby relieving the poverty of our accommo- 
dations. 

Your Committee did not accept your appointment in 1894, and 
its renewal in 1895, as a right of inheritance, or a mark of distinction, 
or a coveted privilege, but they accepted it as servants of the town to 
promote a celebration historic, comprehensive, and patriotic. They 
record here their appreciation of the support they have received thus 
far from old citizens and new comers, from women as well as men, 
from youth and adults, from all parts of our scattered territory, and 
from former residents and their descendants as well as from our pres- 
ent inhabitants. It has been the desire of your Committee to enlist 
everybody in this celebration, till everybody within our borders feels 
that it is unselfishly his. They have taken it for granted that every 
man, woman and child should regard himself as a member of the great 
central " committee of the whole," and should charge himself with a 
responsibility for this celebration, which was begun by the vote and in 
the name of the town as a whole, of the town as it is to-day, with all the 
various components that are in it, and which is to be carried on with 
the distinct aim of paying a worthy tribute of gratitude and reverence 
to the past, with a conscious civic self-respect and appreciation of the 
present, and with a generous reference to the future of a township 
already favorably known for its noble public spirit. 

Your Committee therefore have felt it their duty to call upon 
every citizen, in the name of the town, to assist in this celebration ; 
and they have called upon a few, out of the very many who are compe- 
tent for such leadership, by name and by appointment, to represent 
and organize and direct the activity of our great " committee of the 
whole," to which every one of our more than six thousand citizens 
belongs. 

Finally, in order to meet the expenses of the celebration, your 
Committee recommends that the town avail itself of the provisions of 
the general statute relating to centennial celebrations by towns and 
cities in this Commonwealth. Under this statute a town may appro- 
priate a sum not exceeding one-tenth of one per cent, of its taxable 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY I9 

valuation. As your Committee is informed by the Selectmen, our 
valuation is about ;g4, 500,000, and a tenth of one per cent, would 
give an appropriation of $4,500 for our Quarter-Millenial, a sum 
which judiciously expended would meet the requirements of a dignified 
and comprehensive celebration, while not large enough to warrant 
any ostentation. 

Your Committee accordingly recommends an appropriation not 
exceeding one-tenth of one per cent, of the taxable valuation, to be 
expended under the direction of the Finance Committee. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman. 

The next report of the committee was presented in March, 
1897, and was as follows: 

THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE 
OF FIFTEEN 

At the annual Town Meeting of 1896, your Committee of Fifteen 
on the 250 th Anniversary of the Incorporation of Andover, which 
committee was appointed at the Annual Meeting in 1894, made its 
second annual report, which report was accepted and adopted by a 
gratifying unanimous vote. This report is printed in the annual 
report of the Selectmen for the year ending January 12, 1897, and 
may be found on pages 17-20. 

Your Committee respectfully report further at this time that 
they held meetings during this year as follows: March 9, 18, April 
10, 15, 29, May 13, 16, 28, 1896, and February 27, 1897. The sub- 
committees also held numerous meetings in the discharge of their 
arduous duties. 

In addition to the sub-committees previously reported, your com- 
mittee appointed a Committee on Manufactures and Trades Exhibit, 
Howell F. Wilson, chairman, thereby adding to the celebration one of 
the most interesting and instructive features. 

The general reception prepared for May 19 was reluctantly given 
up, partly in order to give an opportunity to the committee on His- 
torical Tableaux to repeat the entertainment which had been presented 
on Saturday evening for the children, and on Monday for the adults. 
At this third presentation many of the guests from out of town were 



20 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

present. So great was the interest that a fourth performance was 
arranged and successfully carried out immediately after the third 
exhibition, Tuesday evening. It is estimated that twenty-eight hun- 
dred people had the pleasure of seeing these beautiful historical tab- 
leaux. 

The endeavor of the committee to provide simultaneous exercises 
appealing to different tastes and interests, and to open the Loan 
Collection and Trades exhibit at convenient hours for several days 
instead of a single day, proved to be satisfactory. 

The clergymen of the various churches kindly responded to the 
invitation of the town to preach appropriate sermons, or to make 
suitable allusion to the approaching anniversary, on Sunday, May 1 7. 

The invitation of the Town to the town of North Andover to 
unite with us in the celebration was not officially accepted, but a vol- 
untary committee was made up in North Andover to co-operate with 
our own committee, and very efficient assistance was rendered, partic- 
ularly in the loan collection. Many citizens of North Andover, some 
of them specially invited guests of the town of Andover, contributed 
by their presence to the distinction of the celebration. 

The official program and other documents submitted herewith 
and made a part of this report show the work that was done by the 
various sub-committees, and the various exercises that were held, 
beginning with Saturday, May 16, 1896, and closing with the band 
concert and fireworks on the evening of Wednesday, May 20. 

The citizens showed from the beginning to the end a patriotic 
interest in the celebration and the committees experienced from 
almost all of them a hearty co-operation. The attendance from abroad 
and the responses to the special invitations extended by the committee 
to distinguished representatives of the neighborhood, the county, the 
state, the colleges and learned societies, and the nation, were very 
cordial and gratifying. 

The committee feel that it is their bounden duty to speak in the 
highest terms of the manner in which the orator, poet, and toast-master 
discharged the several duties which they undertook at the invitation 
of the town, and which called out the most striking expressions of 
admiration and praise. 

The principal duty remaining for the committee is to carry for- 
ward to completion, the book of the proceedings of the celebration, a 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 21 

work already far advanced, but for which some additional time is re- 
quired. 

The town generously voted the sum of $4500 for the purposes of 
the committee. The receipts and expenditures of the committee are 
shown in detail in the Selectmen's report, and are here appended. 
The balance on hand reported is $932.62, an amount which the 
committee regard as ample for the publication of the proceedings 
and the official payments of the expenses of the celebration. A 
copy of the proceedings will be delivered free of cost, to the head 
of every family in town on application, duly received by the secretary 
of the committee, on or before May i. 

Your committee recommend accordingly the following votes : 

Voted that the thanks of the town of Andover be and hereby are 
extended to the pastors of the churches in Andover and North Ando- 
ver who observed the Anniversary Sunday, May 17, and to the 
Andover Woman's Missionary Society, for the meeting held under 
their auspices on the evening of that day ; to the orator, Albert Poor, 
Esq., for his able historical oration ; to Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, 
for her beautiful poem ; to Professor John Wesley Churchill for his 
admirable rendering of the poem and for his very acceptable service 
as presiding officer and toast-master at the dinner ; to the Rev. F. R. 
Shipman, chaplain of the day ; to the ladies and gentlemen of the 
North Andover committee, for their hearty and helpful co-operation ; 
to the ladies and gentlemen who acted with so much efficiency and 
success as members of the sub-committees ; and to all who in any way 
contributed, directly or indirectly, to the successful celebration of this 
notable anniversary. 

Voted that the Committee of Fifteen be continued the coming 
year and instructed to make a final report at the annual town meeting 
in March, 1898. 

Respectfully submitted. 

For the Committee, 

Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman. 

Professor Harris in moving the adoption of the report, 
said: " In listening to the various votes of thanks, I noticed 
that one most important one had been omitted, and that was a 



22 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



vote of thanks to the general committee for their services. I 
now would move you, sir, that we adopt this report with the 
addition of a generous vote of thanks to the general com- 
mittee." The report as amended was accepted. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 



The following statement shows the different expenses of the 
celebration : 



Appropriation, 


;^45oo oo 


Receipts from Banquet, 


730 50 


Receipts from Loan Collection, 


87 20 


Historical Tableaux, 


$ 395 36 


Children's Entertainment, 


105 93 


Loan Collection, 


393 87 


Banquet, 


1 179 79 


Music, 


665 24 


Decorations, 


362 23 


Transportation, 


250 00 


Salute and Fireworks, 


504 00 


Procession, 


36 40 


Trades Exhibit, 


9 00 


Invitation and Guests, 


III 34 


Sports, 


108 75 


Police, 


113 00 


Miscellaneous, 


150 17 



^5317 70 



$4385 08 

Balance (publication fund), I932 62 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 



23 



COMMITTEES 



The following ladies and gentlemen composed the committees in 
charge of the different features of the celebration : 

Committee of ^^iftcen 



George H. Poor, 
Peter D. Smith, 
Arthur Bliss, 
Alfred L. Ripley, 



(Exccuttoe 

Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman. 

Joseph M. Bradley, John Phelps Taylor, 
William C. Donald, William Marlamd, 
George W. Foster, Ballard Holt, 

Samuel H. Boutwell, Joseph W. Smith, 



H. F. Wilson, 



John N. Cole, Secretary. 



finance 
The Committee of Fifteen, with George H. Poor, Chairman. 



3nmtatton anb ©ucsts 
Cecil F. P. Bancroft, Chairman. 



Varnum Lincoln, 
Samuel H. Boutwell, 
Francis H. Johnson, 
Arthur Bliss, 
George W. W. Dove, 
William S. Jenkins, 
Horace H. Tyer, 
Wm. G. Goldsmith, 
Joseph W. Smith, 
George W. Foster, 



E. P. Chapin, 
T. a. Holt, 
Joseph A. Smart, 
Selah Merrill, 
Charles Greene, 
George H. Poor, 
George Ripley, 
James E. Dennison, 
Egbert C. Smyth, 
Warren F. Draper, 



John N. Cole, 
E. Kendall Jenkins, 
William C. Donald, 
John Phelps Taylor, 
William M. Wood, 
Wililam B. Graves, 
C. H. Marland, 
Felix G. Haynes, 
John S. Stark, 
Charles H. Frye, 



Albert S. Manning, 



George Harris. 



24 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

(Eoentng JJeccption anb tableaux 

Alfred L. Ripley, Chairman. 
Miss Emily Means, Mrs. M. S. McCurdy, J. Newton Cole, 

Miss Mary B. Mills, F. S. Boutwell, George A. Higgins, 

Miss Alice Buck, John W. Bell. 

2)ccorattons 

George W. Foster, Chairman. 
W. H. Coleman, Charles H. Shearer, John E. Smith, 

George D. Millett, Miss Emma J. Lincoln, William P. Regan, 

Miss Florence Parker, Edward W. Burtt. 



David Shaw, 

T. Frank Pratt, 



Arthur Bliss, Chairman. 
Mrs. M. E. Gutterson, Joseph A. Smart, 
Miss Ellen C. Snow, Charles H. Newton, 
Chas. H. Gilbert. 



Ballard Holt, 



Salute anb ^Jtrc IDorks 

John L. Smith, Chairman. 

Lewis T. Hardy, George W. Chandler, 

Joseph F. Cole. 



William Marland, 
M. A. Clement, 
J. Warren Berry, 



Procession 

Peter D. Smith, Chairman. 
Frank E. Gleason, H. Bradford Lewis, 

J. M. Bean, Moses L. Farnham, 

James B. Smith, P. J. Hannon, 

George S. Cole. 



Cljtlbren's ^estipal 

Joseph W. Smith, Chairman. 
John Alden, Miss M. Donovan, Colver J. Stone 

J. Newton Cole, Miss Frances Meldrum, T. Dennie Thomson, 

Mrs. J. E. Johnson, Rev. F. A. Wilson. 



Howell F. Wilson, 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 

printing 



25 



John N. Cole, Chairman. 

Frank T. Carlton, Mrs. Annie S. Downs, 

Joseph W. Smith. 



William Odlin, 
Herbert F. Chase, 



Sports 

Joseph M. Bradley, Chairman. 

J. W. Manning, Walter Buck, 

Antoine B. Saunders, George D. Pettee, 
Frank S. Mills. 



John H. Flint, 
Charles L. Carter, 



Banquet 

William Marland, Chairman. 

Brooks F. Holt, Charles H. Shattuck, 

B. Frank Smith, J. Wesley Churchill. 



M. C. Andrews, 
James W. Hunt, 



£oan Collection 

Samuel H. Boutwell, Chairman 

William Marland, George F. Baker, 

Charles C. Carpenter, Samuel J. Bailey, 

Daughters of the Revolution. 



Amos Blanchard, 



transportation 

Howell F. Wilson, Chairman. 

Abraham Marland, J. W. Barnard, 

William H. Higgins. 



John H. Flint, 



2Jtanufacturcs anb Crabes (Exljibit 

Howell F. Wilson, Chairman. 

George F. Smith, Emil Hoffman, 

Sam D. Stevens. 



26 



ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



INVITED GUESTS 



The following were invited to the celebration: 

The President of the United States, Hon. Grover Cleveland. 

His Excellency, Roger Wolcott, Governor of the Commonwealth. 

His Worship, Alderman Henry Harwood, Mayor of Andover, England. 

Adjutant General Samuel Dalton, 

Brigadier General Albert O. Davidson, 

Col. William M. Bunting, 

Col. William E. Barrett, 

Col. Fred T. Walsh, 

Hon. F. H. Appleton, Peabody. 

Mrs. Moses Abbott, Andover. 

Hon. Charles Francis Adams, Boston. 

President E. B. Andrews, D. D., 

Providence, R. I. 
Hon. J. C. Abbott, Lowell. 
Hon. Edwin H. Abbot, Cambridge. 
Capt. John G. B. Adams, Lynn. 
Arthur Bliss, Andover. 
Samuel H. Boutwell, Andover. 
Edward B. Bishop, Haverhill. 
Hollis R. Bailey, Boston. 
Mrs. William F. Bartlett, Pittsfield. 
Lieut. George T. Brown, Maiden. 
Rev. Henry E. Barnes, D. D., North 

Andover. 
William G. Brooks, North Andover. 
*HoN. Benj. F. Brickett, Haverhill. 
Henry M. Brooks, Salem. 
Mrs. Esther H. Byers, New York, 

N.Y. 
John Crosby Brown, New York, N. Y. 
*Miss Helen C. Bradlee, Boston. 
Hon. Alexander B. Bruce, Lawrence. 
Hon. R. R. Bishop, Newton Center. 
Hon. W. G. Bassett, Northampton. 
Rev. Dr. W. B. Brown, Newark, N. J. 
Rev. J. J. Blair, Wallingford, Ct. 
Rev. Leverett Bradley, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 

•Deceased. 



■■ Of the Governor's Staff. 



Clinton A. Clark, Methuen. 

Daniel S. Chase, Haverhill. 

President Franklin Carter, LL. D., 
Williamstown. 

Mrs. Helen G. Coburn, Boston. 

Col. George H. Campbell, Lawrence. 

President E. H. Capen, D. D., Tufts 
College. 

Charles H. Clark, Haverhill. 

Capt. John Clark, Cambridge. 

Rev. G. W. Clough, Mechanicsville, Vt. 

E. A. Carpenter, North Reading. 

Aaron A. Currier, North Andover. 

Prof. John Wesley Churchill, And- 
over. 

General W. J. Dale, North Andover. 

♦William J. Dale, Jr., North Andover. 

President Timothy Dwight, D. D., 
New Haven, Ct. 

Rev. Dr. E. Winchester Donald, 
Boston. 

John Ward Dean, Medford. 

Hon. James H. Derbyshire, Lawrence. 

Patrick P. Daw, North Andover. 

John M. Danforth, Lynnfield Center. 

Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, Andover. 

Hon. Ralph Emerson, Rockford, 111. 

President Charles W. Eliot, LL. D. 
Cambridge. 

Hon. William C. Endicott, Salem. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 



27 



Rev. Samuel Hopkins Emery, D. D., 
Taunton. 

Frank A. Fitzgerald, Tewksbury. 

Rev. Dr.D. T. Fiske, Newburyport. 

Hon. William P. Frye, Lewiston, 
Me. 

Miss Alice French, Davenport, Iowa. 

F. C. Faulkner, Keene, N. H. 

Theophilus C. Frye, Lawrence. 

J. D. W. French, North Andover. 

Hon. Newton P. Frye, North Andover. 

Chief Justice W. A. Field, Boston. 

F. H. Farmer, Tewksbury. 

William E. Gowing, Wilmington. 

Rev. F. W. Greene, Middletown, Ct. 

Mrs. David Gray, Andover. 

Dr. Samuel A. Green, Boston. 

Abner C. Goodell, jr., Salem. 

President M. E. Gates, LL. D., 
Amherst. 

Joseph D. Gowing, North Reading. 

George F. Heeland, Dracut. 

Hon. William H. Hodgkins, Somer- 
ville. 

Walter H. Hayes, North Andover. 

Lieut. S. C. Hervey, Boston. 

Major Horace Holt, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. 

Hon. Joseph Sidney Howe, Methuen. 

Rev. E. B. Haskell, Worcester. 

Mrs. Dean Holt, Andover. 

Hon. Rowland Hazard, Peacedale, 
R. L 

Alpheus H. Hardy, Boston. 

Dr. J. M. Harlow, Woburn. 

Mrs. J. M. Harlow, Woburn. 

Hon. George F. Hoar, Worcester. 

William J. Halliday, Jr., North And- 
over. 

Hon. Rollin E. Harmon, Lynn. 

Hon. F. a. Hill, Boston. 

President W. Dew. Hyde, Brunswick, 
Me. 

Mrs. Sarah F. F. Howarth, Andover. 

Mrs. President Julia Irvine, Welles- 
ley. 

Hon. George S. Junkins, Lawrence. 



Samuel A. Johnson, Salem. 

Arthur S. Johnson, Boston. 

Miss Sarah Kittredge, North And- 
over. 

Hon. W. S. Knox, Lawrence. 

Ballard Lovejoy, Andover. 

Charles Lilley, Lowell. 

Rev. Stephen C. Leonard, Orange, 
N.J. 

The Right Rev. William Lawrence, 
Cambridge. 

Rev. James H. Laird, Hinsdale. 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Nahant. 

Hon. George P. Lawrence, North 
Adams. 

John O. Loring, North Andover. 

Charles W. Lee, Reading. 

George E. Marshall, Tewksbury. 

Rev. Alexander Mckenzie, D. D., 
Cambridge. 

Mrs. President Elizabeth Storrs 
Mead, South Hadley. 

Edwin D. Mead, Boston. 

Mortimer B. Mason, Boston. 

Hon. G. V. L. Meyer, Boston. 

Prof, Charles M. Mead, D. D., Hart- 
ford, Ct. 

Marcus Morton, Boston. 

N. E. Morton, Lawrence. 

Rev. F. B. Makepeace, Springfield. 

Prof. George Mooar, D. D., Oakland, 
Cal. 

Hon. Charles T. Means, Manchester, 
N. H. 

Rev. M. J. Murphy, Lawrence. 

W. F. Merrill, New York, N. Y. 

George O. Marsh, Methuen. 

Major George S. Merrill, Lawrence. 

Miss Margaret Wendell Newman, 
Andover. 

Rev. Charles No yes. North Andover. 

E. M. Nichols, Wilmington. 

Theodore M. Osborne, Salem. 

Hon. William M. Olin, Boston. 

Frederick Patch, Lawrence. 

Rev. E. G. Porter, Ashmont. 

Hon. Dean Peabody, Lynn. 



28 



ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



Judge Charles A. Peabody, New 
York, N. Y. 

*Samuel Phillips, Andover. 

William Poor, Andover. 

Mrs. Clarissa Abbott Poor, Andover. 

Albert Poor, Andover. 

Lieut. Charles H. Poor, North An- 
dover. 

Rev. Dr. A. H. Quint, Boston. 

Mrs. Esther Randall, Andover. 

Robert Russell, Holyoke. 

Rev. J. J. Ryan, Cambridge, N. Y. 

A. Herbert Robinson, Lawrence. 

Hon. John C. Ropes, Boston. 

Hon. Joseph S. Ropes, Norwich, Ct. 

Thomas H. Russell, Boston. 

W. L Ruggles, Reading. 

J. Milton Robinson, North Reading. 

Alfred Sagar, Methuen. 

Horace E. Scudder, Cambridge. 

President W. G. Sperry, D. D., Olivet, 
Mich. 

Mrs. Willard G. Sperry, Olivet, 
Mich. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Worcester. 

Hon. Oliver Stevens, Boston. 

General Hazard Stevens, Boston. 

John S. Stark, Ballardvale. 

Rev. F. R. Shipman, Andover. 

Samuel D. Smith, Marblehead. 

Howard A. Stevens, Dracut. 

Hon. Moses T. Stevens, North An- 
dover. 

Mrs. M. T. Stevens, North Andover. 

President L. Cl.^rk Seelye, D. D., 
Northampton. 

A. R. Sanborn, Lawrence. 

Hon. E. J. Sherman, Lawrence. 

Hon. William H. Strong, New York, 
N. Y. 

President George W. Smith, D. D., 
Hartford, Ct 

•Deceased. 



David Smith, U. S. N., Washington, 

D. C. 
Commander E. T. Strong, U. S. N., 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Mrs. Charles Smith, New York, N. Y. 
Rev. J. V. Stratton, Scottsdale, Pa. 
♦Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hart- 
ford, Ct. 
Hon. George O. Shattuck, Boston. 
Hon. Daniel Saunders, Lawrence. 
Charles J. Sargent, Wilmington. 
Mrs. Pa.melia Stevens, Andover. 
Prof. J. H. Thayer, D. D., Cambridge. 
Lucius Tuttle, Boston. 
President William J. Tucker, D. D., 

Hanover, N. H. 
Rev. E. S. Thomas, North Andover. 
Dr. Nathaniel C. Towle, Andover. 
Rev. Dr. James G. Vose, Providence, 

R. L 
William P. Varnum, Dracut. 
Rev. Dr. J. W. Well.man, Maiden. 
Rev. Dr. W. H. Willcox, Maiden. 
Rev. Dr. G. L. Walker, Hartford, Ct 
President Francis A. Walker, LL. 

D., Boston. 
President Willia.m F. Warren, D. 

D., Boston. 
Hon. John A. Wiley, North Andover. 
Rev. W1LLIA.M G. Woodbridge, Griffin, 

Ga. 
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Washington, 

D. C. 
Hon. Alden P. White, Salem. 
Rev. E. S. Williams, Oakland, Cal. 
Rev. Dr. George Frederick Wright, 

Oberlin, Ohio. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps 

Ward, Newton Center. 
William Whitman, Brookline. 
William H. Wightman, Reading. 
Simon Wardwell, Andover. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 29 



THE OFFICIAL PROGRAM 



SATURDAY, MAY i6 
7.30 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, Children's 
evening. 

SUNDAY, MAY 17 
10.30 A. M., At the Churches l\ Andover and North An- 
DOVER : Historical Sermons. 7.30 p. m., At South Church : Union 
Missionary Service under the auspices of the Andover Woman's 
Missionary Society. 

MONDAY, MAY 18 
8.00 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, free admission 
by ticket. 

TUESDAY, MAY 19 
8.00 p. M., At Town Hall : Historical Tableaux, free admission 
by ticket. 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 20 
Sunrise and Sunset : Salute and Bells. Procession, 9 a. m. 

LITERARY EXERCISES IN THE SOUTH CHURCH. 11 a.m. 
Presiding Officer, Dr. C. F. P. Bancroft. 

Music, \\'altham Band. 

Prayer by Rev. F. R. Shipman, Chaplain. 

Singing, " O God beneath thy guiding hand," Band accompaniment. 

Oration by Albert Poor, Esq. 

Music, Waltham Band. 

Poem by Mrs. Annie Sawyer Downs, read by Prof. John Wesley Churchill. 

Singing, " My Country 'tis of thee," band accompaniment. 

CHILDREN'S FESTIVAL 
1 1 A.M. At the Town Hall. For children only. 

BANQUET 
1.30 P.M. In tent on Bartlet Street : Presiding Officer, Prof. Churchill. 
Speaking by distinguished guests. Music by Baldwin's Cadet Band. 



30 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

BAND CONCERTS 

1 P.M. Cricket Field, Andover Brass Band. 

2 P.M. Phillips Academy Field, Haverhill City Band. 

3 P.M. Elm Square, Waltham Watch Co- Band. 
8 P.M. Locke's Field, Andover Brass Band. 

FIREWORKS 
8 P.M. At Locke's Field, Elm Street. 

SPORTS 

8.00 — Bicycle road race. For riders sixteen years and younger. An- 
dover to Ballard Vale and return. Start and fmish at foot of Chestnut Street. 
8. GO — Bicycle road race. For riders above sixteen years of age. Twice 
over the course. 

1 1 .00 — Tennis tournament. Mixed doubles. Matches played on the 
Theological Seminary courts. 

1 1. CO — Base-ball game for players over sixteen on the Phillips Academy 
campus. 

1. 00 — Cricket match between picked elevens from the Andover team, 
on the Cricket Club grounds. 

2. GO — Athletic sports, on the Phillips Field, consisting of the following 
events : 

loo-yards dash. 
22o-yards dash. 

22G-yards hurdle race. (2 1-2 ft.) 
Half-mile run. 
Potato race. (50 yds.) 
Bicycle — Serpentine race. 
Bicycle — Egg and spoon race. 
Running broad jump. 
Music by Haverhill City Band. 

3.30 — Base-ball game. For boys sixteen years and under, on the field 
at the corner of Main and Salem Streets. 

LOAN EXHIBITION IN PUNCHARD HALL 

Tuesday, May 19, open 2 to 6 p.m. 
Wednesday, May 20, open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Thursday, May 21, open 2 to 6 p.m. 

TRADES EXHIBIT IN LOWER TOWN HALL 

Tuesday, May 19, open 6 to ig p.m. 
Wednesday, May 20, open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY JI 



THE CELEBRATION 



Saturday, May 16, was the opening day for the celebra- 
tion. For a week before that day, by decorations on public 
buildings and through private and public preparations, the 
town had been taking on its gala attire in anticipation of its 
natal day. The sabbath day services of the morrow were de- 
signed to open the anniversary exercises, but so great had 
been the call for an opportunity to see the historical tableaux, 
that an evening for the children was provided on Saturday. 

For five days then the town lived in its festivities, and the 
enjoyment of those days will live for many years in the minds 
of those who participated. 

SUNDAY AT THE CHURCHES 

The services in the churches on Sunday, May 17, were of 
peculiar interest and value. The various meeting houses were 
filled with large congregations and many different aspects of 
the town's life and growth were considered by the preachers. 
The services were conducted as follows: 

SOUTH CHURCH 

Founded in 1711. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frank R. Shipman. 

Text : "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before 
God." Rev. 20 : 12. 

Subject — "A Vision of Our Past." 



32 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

WEST PARISH CHURCH 

Founded in 1826. 

Sermon by Rev. Wm. C. Merrill. 

Text : "For the Lord' s portion is his people ; Jacob is the lot 
of his inheritance. He found him in a desert land, and in the 
waste howling wilderness ; he led him about, he instructed 
hitn, lie kept Jiiin as the apple of his eye. As an eagle stirreth 
up her nest, fluttcreth over her yoiuig, spreadeth abroad her 
wings, take til them, beareth them, on her wings: so the Lord 
alone did lead him, and there was no strange god with hitn." 
Deut. 32 :9-i3." 

Subject — " Unto This Time." 

CHRIST CHURCH 

Founded in 1835. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frederic Palmer. 

Text: "And he carried me away in the spirit to a great 
and high inotmtain, and shewed me that great city, the holy 
Jerusalem, descending out of heaven fvm God." Rev. 21 : lo. 

Subject — "Characteristics of the Ideal Commu- 
nity Represented in Andover." 

FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Founded in 1846. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Frederic A. Wilson. 
Text : "/ have considered the days of old, the years of 
ancient times." Psalms 77 : 5. 

Subject — " Early Church Life in Massachusetts." 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH 

Founded in 1852. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Thomas A. Field, O. S. A. 

Text : "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers ; 
for there is no power but of God, and those that are ordained of 
God. Romans 13:1, 2. 

Subject — " Duty of the Present Day Citizen " 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 33 

BAPTIST CHURCH 

Founded in 1858. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. F. W. Klein. 

Text : "A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid." Matt. 
5:14. 

Subject — " Andover's True Prominence." 
CHAPEL CHURCH 

Founded in 1865. 

Sermon by Prof. John Phelps Taylor. 

Text : "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand 
forget her ciitming. If I do not remember thee let m.y tongue 
cleave to the roof of my mouth ; If I ptefer not Jerusalem 
above my chief joy." Psalm 137 : 5, 6. 

Subject — " The Spirit of Educational Andover." 

BALLARDVALE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

Founded in 1854. 

Sermon by Rev. J. C. Evans. 

Subject — " The Developments in the Ecclesiasti- 
cal AND Moral History of Andover." 



FIRST CHURCH, NORTH ANDOVER 

Founded in 1645. 

Sermon by the pastor, Rev. Charles Noyes. 
Text : "Enquire I pray thee, of the former age and pre- 
pare thyself to the search of their fathers." Job i6 : 8. 

TRINITARIAN CHURCH, NORTH ANDOVER 

Founded in 1834. 

Sermon by the pastor. Rev. H. E. Barnes, D.D. 

Text : "One generation shall praise thy works to another 
and shall declare thy mighty acts." Psalms 145 :4. 

Subject — "A Glance at North Andover's Two 
Hundred and Fifty Years of History." 



34 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

HISTORICAL TABLEAUX 

No better review of this beautiful and artistic feature of 
the celebration could be made for a record than to reproduce 
in fac simile the program which so appropriately announced it, 
as shown in the following pages. 



Ji SPECTJICIiE 



OF 

moral and Pleasing Pictures 

FROM YE HISTORIE OF 

y« ^ncienl Towne of Jlndover 

Within Ye Massachusetts Bay Colony 
From Y« Yeare of Our Lord 
1646 to 1789 .... 



To be shewn in Y« Towne House 

On ye 16''', ye i8''>, and y* 19* Nights of ye Month of May, 

In ye Yeare of Our Lord 1896 



At eight of ye clock on ye i8th and ye igth nights, 

and at half after seven of ye clock ye i6th 

night, for ye welfare of ye children 



a50TH ANNIVERSARY 35 

1 y« P?^55in$ of y« Red i^en 

"At a General Court at Boston, 6th ^d mo. 1646, Cutshamache, Saga- 
more of Y* Massachusetts came into Y« Corte & acknowledged y' for the 
sum of ^6 and a Coat which he had already received, he had sold to Mr. 
John Woodbridge in behalfe of y^ inhabitants of Cochichawicke now called 
Andover all his right interest & privilege in y* land 6 miles southward from 
y« town, two miles eastward to Rowley bounds be y« same more or lesse, 
northward to Merrimack River." 



y« PioGeer5 



" To raising Townes and Churches new in wilderness they wander 
First Plymouth and then Salem next were placed far asunder, 
Woburn, Wenham, Redding, built with little Silver Mettle 
Andover, Haverhill, Berris-banks their habitation settle." 



y« jiii^ck 



"To the Honoured Councill. The malitiah of our towne do humbly 
request your Honours to consider our condition. The enemy has twice 
assaulted us ; the last was Saturday last, who slew a lusty younge mane & 
took his brother a youth & carried him away : we had sum flforces to helpe 
us bute the enemy cannot be found when we goe after them." 



y« JIc^d[i^.n5 



"In 1756 twenty-two Acadians were sent to Andover, and the families 
of Jacques and Charles Esbert were placed in a house on the estate of Mr. 
Jonathan Abbott, to his great annoyance. But as his descendants relate, 
the Acadians completely conquered the prejudices of this family and of the 
community. They were industrious and frugal, and commended their religion 
by their good conduct. When they went from Andover, Mr. Abbott's family 
parted from them with sincere regret. Two of them sent a souvenir to Mr. 
Abbott, which the family still keep, a beautifully carved and polished powder 
horn, made by their own hands. It is inscribed 

" JONATHAN ABBOTT 

HIS HORN MADB IN ALBNSTOWN APRIL YB 5 tJJO 

I powder with my brother ball 
Most hero-like doth conquer all." 



36 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

5 J- VitcKcr^^fl 

" Touching and sad a tale is told, 
Like a penitent hymn of the Psalmist old, 
Of the fast which the good man life-long kept 
With a haunting sorrow that never slept. 
As the circling year brought round the time 
Of an error that left the sting of crime, 
When he sat on the bench of the Witchcraft Courts 
With the Laws of Moses and Hale's Reports, 
And spake, in the name of both, the word, 
That gave the witch's neck to the cord, 
And piled the oaken planks that pressed 
The feeble life from the warlock's breast." 



y« Spififiii^? s^^ 



The town of Andover made an appeal, in 1787, "to the good sense and 
virtuous dispositions of the female sex, to the younger as well as the elder, 
that they would by their engaging example, economy, and simplicity in dress, 
giving preference to that clothing which is produced from our own flocks 
and from our own fields, encourage home industries. 

At one time, the towns were obliged by law to have a certain amount of 
spinning done." 

7 y« I^eceplion of Gen. V^5Kin^Ion Ij P[i.d-b.ui 
PKiIIIp5 kI y« M^^n5ioii Hou5e 

This was the largest and most elegant house which had ever been built 
in the town. Its raising (in 1781) was an occasion of universal interest. 
The whole town were gathered together on the hill, watching with mingled 
anxiety and delight as section after section of the heavy frame was raised. 
The Rev. Mr. French made a fervent prayer for its successful accomplish- 
ment, and when all was finished without accident, thanks and festivity 
followed. Judge Phillips kept open house, and entertained guests of high 
and of low degree with dignified courtesy and generous hospitality. Many 
were the illustrious visitors at the Mansion House. Here, in the southeast 
parlor, George Washington was received by Madame Phillips and her friends, 
during the Presidential tour. The chair in which he sat was adorned by 
Madame Phillips with a ribbon ; this, on the day when she heard the news of 
his death, she took off and put in its stead a mourning badge of crape." 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 37 



MAY TWENTIETH 

1896 



Andover in all her glory, under fair skies and in a 
bright array of flags and bunting, was all prepared for this 
eventful day in her history. All roads led to Andover on this 
fair May morning, and the gaily bedecked streets were early 
full of life. At the stroke of the clock that tolled off the hour 
of nine a. m. the day's pleasure had begun, and one event after 
another in order and precision told how well the preliminary 
arrangements had been made. Something for everybody to 
enjoy, and some event to make the day memorable to each 
attendant had been provided, and from the morning salute to 
the boom of the good night rocket, not an accident occurred, 
nor a detail of the program miscarried, in the making of 
Andover's two hundred and fiftieth birthday a glorious success. 



THE PROCESSION 

The procession formed as announced in the official pro- 
gram and was made up as follows: 

Platoon of Police. Chief, George W. Mears. 

Baldwin's Cadet Band, 25 men. J. Thomas Baldwin, Leader. 

Post 99, G. A. R., 40 men. Commander, J. M. Bean. 

CHIEF MARSHAL, PETER D. SMITH. 

Aids : C. L. Carter, M. C. Andrews, F. M. Hill, F. E. Gleason, 

Herbert Goff, H. H. Noyes, Emanuel Downing. 

Guests in Carriages. 



38 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

^irst Otptston — (£oIor ^eb 
James B. Smith, Marshal. 

Aids : C. H. Forbes, A. A. Freeman, Peter Smith, W. J. Butter- 
field, Clarence Goldsmith, J. Lewis Smith, Ralph A. Trow. 

Andover Brass Band, 25 men. C. H. Newton, Leader. 

Punchard Cadets, 30 boys. Henry Bodwell, Captain. Phillips 
Academy Seniors, in caps and gowns. 900 School Children. 

Seconb Otptsion — Color VOi}iU 
H. Bradford Lewis, Marshal. 

Aids: E. A. Hanson, W. A. Donald, M. J-. Crowley, W. J. 
Burns, R. A. Watson, C. B. Jenkins, J. F. Cole, John 
Downing. 

Haverhill City Band, 25 men. T. D. Perkins, Leader. 

Fire Department. Chief, Lewis T. Hardy. Steamer Com- 
pany, No. I, 20 men. Foreman, G. A. Holt. Hose 
Wagon. Two Steamers. H. and L. Truck. J. P. Bradlee 
Co., No. 2, 10 men. Allan Simpson, Foreman. 

Ct^irb 2)tDtsion — (£olor 3Iue 
M. A. Clement, Marshal. 

Aids : F. P. Higgins, Dennis Sweeney, J. H. Campion, Stephen 
Abbott, John Collins, Geo. L. Burnham, George E. Holt, 
E. C. Pike, Augustus Nolan, W. B. Cheever, Harry 
Holmes, N. G. Gleason, M. E. demons, F. H. Foster. 

Waltham Watch Co. Band, 25 men. J. M. Flockton, Leader. 
TRADES. 

Grocers : T. A. Holt & Co., six teams ; Smith & Manning, five 
teams ; J. H. Campion, five teams ; P. J. Daly, three teams. 

Provision Dealers : Valpey Bros., four teams ; J. P. Wakefield, 
three teams ; L. H. Eames; W. G. Brown. 

Fish Dealers : T. J. Farmer, three teams ; J. Hutcheson, 
two teams. 

Milk Dealers : Mrs. W. T. Sellers, two teams ; M. H. Gould, 
George L. Averill. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 39 

Andover Grange : decorated barge and barouche, containing 
goddesses. 

Maverick Oil Company : three-horse truck, and decorated 
float representing " Washington crossing the Delaware." 

Ballardvale Lithia Water Company : two wagons, with 

display of product. 
Wood and Coal : Frank E. Gleason, five teams. 
Builders : Hardy & Cole, three teams. 
Express: American, two teams ; B. B. Tuttle, two teams. 
Tailors : P. J. Hannon, Burns & Crowley. 

Plumbers : Michael T. Walsh, George Saunders, William 
Welsh, E. C. Pike. 

Florists : Mrs. Hannah Woodbridge, Geo. Piddington, J. H. 
Playdon. 

Smith & Dove Manufacturing Co. : wagon load of product. 

Concrete : J. Duffy. 

Wagons : J. W. Poor. 

Boots and Shoes : B. Brown. 

Tea : Joseph W. Higgins. 

Stable Keeper : W. H. Higgins, fancy brake. 

Carriages : William Poor. 

Shoe Manufacturer : J. W. Barnard & Son, decorated shoe. 

Blacksmith : Anderson & Bowman. 

The route of march was as follows : High Street, through 
Walnut and Maple Avenues, Summer to Whittier, East Chestnut, 
Central, Phillips, Abbott, School and Main Streets to Elm Square. 

The line was reviewed by the Marshal and Staff at Punchard 
Avenue. 

LITERARY EXERCISES 

At II a. m. the South Church was filled with a large 
audience of citizens and invited guests, who listened with 
interest and close attention to the notable exercises provided. 
Rev. Cecil F. P. Bancroft, LL.D., presided and introduced the 
following program: 



4° 



ANbOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 
I. 



Music, 

Prayer, 

Singing, 

Historical Oration, 

Music, 

Historical Poem, 

"America" 



Waltham Band 



II. 
Rev. Frank R, Shipman, Chaplain 

III. 
"O God Beneath Thy Guiding Hand" 

IV. 

Albert Poor, Esq. 

V. 

Waltham Band 
- Annie Sawyer Downs 
Band and Audience 



VI. 



VII. 



CHILDREN'S ENTERTAINMENT 

While the older citizens and guests were assembled at 
the Church, at the Town Hall an exhibition had been pro- 
vided for the children only, and here they were delightfully 
entertained by the following program: 

1 Wonderful Feats of Prestidigitation. 

prof. FLOYD. 

2 a Xylophone Solo, " Klappermeier Galop." Ringkben 

(The Xylophone used was made by Miss Miles.) 

b Cornet Solo, " Polka Fantasie Fancies." Perkins 

c Violin Solo, "Theme and Varie." Farmer 

miss miles. 

3 Polyphonical, 

Including a host of imitations of sounds from the realm of Fish, Flesh 
and Fowl, as well as many curious counterfeits of mechanical operations. 

mr. bryant. 

4 Cornet and Piano Duet, 

Playing both instruments at the same time. 
Swiss Staff Bells Solo, " Silver Bells Gavotte." Miles 

Arranged and performed by Miss Miles. 



250th anniversary 4i 

5 Marvellous Feats of Legerdemain. 

prof. floyd. 

6 a Army Bugle Call, "Reveille," "Tattoo." 

b Snare Drum Solo, " Long Roll " and " Quickstep." 
(Arranged and performed by Miss Miles in uniform.) 

7 Ventriloquial, introducing "A Family Party." 

Mr. Johnson. 

Grandmother. 

Patrick, not a Johnson. 

The Mayor, fond of a nap. 

Sam, ) 

Tom, V Little Johnsons. 

Bobby, ) 

MR. BRYANT. 



THE SPORTS 

The different sporting events planned by the committee 
began in the morning with bicycle races and ended with 
athletic sports on the Phillips Academy athletic field in the 
afternoon. The winners of the different events were: 

BICYCLE RACES 

The race for riders sixteen years and younger was won by Walter 
Lamont with Alex. Dundas second. 

For riders over sixteen, A. H. Manning first, J. W. Manning second, 
Charles Bodwell third. 

CRICKET MATCH 

At I o'clock a cricket match was played on the cricket grounds between 
two teams captained by A. B. Saunders and D. F. Bruce. The former won, 
44 to 24. 

TRACK AND FIELD EVENTS 

100 yards dash — Ralph Trow, n 2-5 s. 220 yards dash — J. Breslin, 26 
2-5 s. 220 yards hurdle — J. Breslin, 31 1-5 s. Half mile race — H. Callum, 
2 m. 30 2-5 s. Broad jump — T. Mahoney, 16 ft. 2 in. Potato race — Dickson. 
Bicycle, egg and spoon race — A. Dundas. Bicycle serpentine race — Joseph 
W. Smith, Jr. 



42 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

BAND CONCERTS 

During the day four band concerts were given in different 
parts of the town as follows: 

1 p, M. Cricket Field, Andover Brass Band. 

2 P. M. Phillips Academy Field, Haverhill City Band. 

3 p. M. Elm Square, Waltham Watch Co. Band. 
8 p. M. Locke's Field. Andover Brass Band. 

THE BANQUET 

At 1.30 p. M. about seven hundred citizens were gathered 
in the tent provided on Bartlet street for the banquet. Tickets 
had been placed at $1.50 each and the committee in charge 
had made ample accommodations for the comfort and enjoy- 
ment of the guests. Professor Churchill presided and music 
was furnished by Baldwin's Cadet Band. A full report of the 
literary exercises at the banquet, follows the Oration and Poem. 



But one set feature of the day's program remained and 
the same careful planning that had marked all of the committee's 
work made the fireworks exhibit a fitting close of a memorable 
day. 

But not alone in the enjoyment of the stirring events of 
the principal day of the celebration is the Quarter Millenial 
Anniversary of Andover's birth to live in the memory of her 
citizens; hours had been spent by old and young all through 
the week in visiting the remarkable Loan Exhibition of 
Historic Articles in Punchard Hall and the equally interesting 
display of the present day Manufactures in the lower town hall. 

On the following pages will be found the most interesting 
part of this report. The oration and poem, the speeches of 
many noted citizens at the banquet, the list of historical articles 
that so delighted thousands of visitors, a brief review of the 
exhibition in the town's industrial display, all together make a 
part of this volume that every citizen will prize. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 43 



THE ORATION 



BY ALBERT POOR, ESQ. 



MR. PRESIDENT AND FELLOW CITIZENS . 



The Reformation in England in the sixteenth century was 
greatly furthered by the vices and ambitions of Henry VIII. In the 
early years of his reign, this monarch held his conscience in the keep- 
ing of the church, and the book that the royal hand compiled, in 
which the cause of Leo X. was sustained against the theses of Luther, 
won for its author and all his successors on the English throne, the 
title of Defender of the Faith. But, when later the popes either 
refused to aid him in his ambitious designs upon the continent, or 
were too slowly inclined to facilitate that rapid rotation of wives this 
uxorious monarch demanded, the royal lust and ambition, becoming 
impatient of restraint, cast aside the supremacy of the pope, and the 
king, scarce better or other than an anti-pope, assumed the headship 
of the spiritual affairs of his kingdom. Devoid of moral significance 
as this act of Henry's may have been, it no doubt at once opened 
England to the reception of those reform doctrines that Luther was 
inculcating, and with which the atmosphere of European thought was 
densely charged. From this beginning the Reformation grew apace, 
and before the end of the reign of Edward VI., son and successor of 
Henry, the Church of England had been established, with its services 
and rituals, in the same form substantially as they exist today. The 
five years of Mary, who succeeded her brother Edward in 1553, were 
indeed a time of sore torment and distress to the growing cause of 
reform ; the fires of Smithfield, lighted by her, desolated many a home 
in England, and her decrees, like the fabled laws of Draco, may be said 
almost to have been written in blood. During her reign it is esti- 
mated that almost three hundred victims perished at the stake. What 
measure of Romanist zeal might not be expected of her who was at 
once the wife of Philip II. and the granddaughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella ! What bitter vengefulness might not well inhere in the 
spirit of the daughter of Catharine of Aragon ! 



44 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

With the accession of Elizabeth, however, the protestant church 
was restored, and the acts of Parliament passed immediately upon her 
accession to the throne, confirmed to her the sole leadership of the 
Established Church. With the new sovereign came back to England 
the hordes of protestants who had taken refuge in Geneva, Amster- 
dam, and other continental strongholds of free thought ; they brought 
back with them their own ideas of forms of worship, and soon the 
Established Church, in alarm over the great and increasing numbers 
of the Nonconformists, created its Star Chambers and High Commis- 
sions that in their turn became almost as oppressive as had been Mary 
and her Romish bishops. Everywhere the spirit of independent free 
thought was abroad, and finally, in very fear for the well-being of the 
Establishment, was passed in 1593 the Act of Conformity. The pur- 
pose of this statute was to compel attendance upon the services of 
the Established Church, and those who failed to obey its enactments 
were doomed to abjure the realm and go into perpetual banishment, 
or, declining to leave, or if, having departed, they should be so bold as 
to return, the penalty was death. The congregations founded in 
England for the time were broken up ; many of the Nonconformists 
went to Holland, where they founded churches according to their own 
ideas, " walking," as they claimed, " in all the ways which God had 
made known or should make known to them." And here it is that 
Scrooby and Delft Haven, Amsterdam and Leyden, the Speedwell 
and the Mayflower, John Robinson, Elder Brewster, and Plymouth 
Rock, become names at the mere mention of which New England 
hearts fill with pride, and in the long retrospect of almost thrice one 
hundred years are the luminous points where begin the annals of 
American history. Here comes into being the wonderful compact on 
the Mayflower, that fruitful germ out of which has been evolved all 
our modern constitutions ; and here begins in the spirit of godliness, 
with fervent prayer, and a fortitude known only to heroes' breasts, the 
first settlement of New England, that was destined in the fulness of 
time to grow into the great republic. 

The strict proprieties of this occasion do not permit me to enter 
into any detail of the early history of Plymouth ; our immediate con- 
cern is with the Massachusetts Bay settlement, which, with its greater 
wealth and vigor, was destined to absorb its sister colony of Plymouth. 
But tack of all this movement to New England, was a high moral 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 45 

insistence on freedom of thought and practice in matters religious, 
and no doubt the persecutions by the heads of the Establishment in 
England, and the tyrannous statute of 1593, were the bitter con- 
straint that led most of the early settlers to leave the comforts of 
England and to undergo the privations of life in the new world. Too 
much cannot be said in praise of the exalted piety and religious fervor 
of the forty-one immigrants with their families on the Mayflower, but 
it has often seemed to me that the voyage itself was not undertaken 
with due regard to the difficulties to be met, or with such knowledge 
as its projectors might have easily attained ; their voyage began too 
late in the season, their numbers and supplies were inadequate, and 
they settled on unfertile soil. Hence their slow progress, and hence 
it was that at the end of ten years they numbered scarcely three hun- 
dred souls. But still they had no dictation in matters of religion; 
though their trials were great, still, as Brewster wrote, "it is not with 
us as with those whom small things can discourage ; " and from 
England came back the cheering words : " Let it not be grievous unto 
you that you have been instrumental to break the ice for others : the 
honor shall be yours to the world's end." And so with encouraging 
words, and such supplies as could be furnished, the Puritans in Eng- 
land had constantly in mind the little settlement in Plymouth ; eagerly 
they sought to obtain a larger settlement, and finally in 1629 King 
Charles granted the charter for the Massachusetts Bay. 

With the issuing of the charter, the zeal for New England grew 
apace. Among the country gentry and the tradespeople prospectuses 
were issued, containing a description of Massachusetts ; and upon the 
lists of those interested in the movement appear names, no longer of 
poor men and artizans, as in the case of Robinson ten years before, 
but of professional men, the proprietors of landed estates, as well as 
prosperous tradesmen. Sir Richard Saltonstall, Bradstreet, Dudley, 
the Winthrops, Ward, Cotton, Hooker and Roger Williams are a 
sufficient guaranty of the respectability of the movement. First came 
two hundred men; then April nth, 1630, came Winthrop in the 
Arbella, and with him eight hundred carried in a flotilla of eleven 
ships. "The fleet," says Hubbard, the historian of New England, 
" was filled with passengers of all occupations, skilled in all kinds of 
faculties needful for the planting of the new colony." Before the end 
of the first year, it is estimated that fully fifteen hundred people had 



46 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

landed on these shores : and the moral tone of the immigrants was 
such as to forbid, for a time a least, the approach of mere adventurers. 
In numbers like this there was certainly an adequate self defence, and 
the means of the immigrants, the supplies they brought with them, 
were sufficient to repel harsh physical suffering. 

And what was the aspect of the country to which they came ? 
No doubt the beach at Manchester responded musically to the tread 
of the hunter and the fisherman ; the rocks at Marblehead and 
Swampscott and Nahant reared their gigantic strength against the 
terrors of the waves ; the long stretches of marshes at Newbury and 
Revere were reflecting to the sun with the various months their 
neutral tints ; but no husbandman then gathered into ricks their 
abundant growths ; no cities then were crowding upon their virgin 
domain ; over them the wild fowl screamed, and the eagle and the 
hawk swept over their broad expanse in flight high poised above the 
hazard of the Indian's arrow ; while beyond the reach of salt waves, on 
the higher land forest followed forest in endless succession, save 
where here and there an Indian encampment had been planted on hill 
or headland, and the Indian squaw had cleared a bit for the indifferent 
agriculture, that supplied the needs of her scanty home ; the Ipswich, 
the Merrimac and the Charles flowed unpolluted and unfettered to 
the sea that gave them birth. Still the sun rose in splendor from 
the ocean, and sank down to his rest in the forest, flooding the earth 
and the sky with the majesty of his glory, and, as he withdrew his 
beam, timidly still the moon and stars came forth that the circle of 
beauty might be made complete. Yes, it was nature, nature ever 
beautiful, perhaps not always kindly, arrayed in her native attire, 
that our ancestors met upon these shores : to her harsher moods 
they accommodated themselves with fortitude ; but her more genial 
seasons they utilized with foresight and industry. 

The advent of so many immigrants as came within the first five 
years following 1630, necessitated a removal from the coast, and, as 
there was naturally an eager quest for desirable sites, the availability 
of Cochichawick as a place of settlement soon became known ; for we 
find as early as March 4, 1635, a vote of the General Court, whereby 
" it is ordered that the land about Cochichowicke shalbe reserved for 
an inland plantacon and that whosoeuer will goe to inhabite there 
shall have three yeares iifiunity from all taxes, levyes, publique 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 47 

charges and services whatsoeuer (military discipline onlly excepted)," 
and three commissioners were appointed to " license any that they 
thinke meete to inhabite there, and that it shalbe lawfuU for noe pson 
to goe thither without their consent or the maior pte of them." 
Though set apart thus early as an inland plantation, settlers, deterred 
no doubt by the falls in the Merrimac and the trackless woods, did not 
come forward to acquire what was lying ready at their hands. As 
the settlers, however, stretched outward more and more, the merits of 
the location became better known, and soon citizens of Newtowne, 
now Cambridge, presented a petition for their own occupation, and 
their request might have been granted but for the intervention of that 
element of personal influence which goes so far today in shaping the 
course of practical legislation. 

In the year 1639 there was living in Ipswich a minister of the 
name of Nathaniel Ward ; originally bred to the bar in his native 
country, on arriving in New England he gave up a profession that was 
not much needed in the early settlements, and turned himself to the 
ministry ; his training at the bar made it an easy task for him to write 
*'The Body of Liberties," a masterly statement of the duties and 
privileges of the freeman of New England, the first Blue Book of 
Massachusetts, and his ready wit flowed out in a genial satire en- 
titled " The Simple Cobbler of Agawam." Now, this Mr. Ward had 
a son John who had been bred to the pulpit ; also a son-in-law, who 
had studied medicine ; for both these men places were needed, and 
what more natural than that the father should avail himself of his 
acquaintance with the distinguished Mr. Winthrop, who had been his 
neighbor at Ipswich, and was a relative by marriage, to secure for the 
members of his family and their friends the as yet unappropriated 
region about Cochichawick .' In December 1639 therefore, he wrote a 
letter to Winthrop reminding him of his promise not to encourage 
any plantation at Quichichacke or Penticutt, till he and some others 
had time to speak or write further regarding it. This letter was 
followed immediately by one from the son - in - law, Dr. Fyrmin, who 
expressed his favorable opinion of Pentuckctt or Quichichwick by 
Shawshin. Meanwhile, Mr. Ward had engaged in an active canvass 
for settlers, and soon wrote again to his distinguished friend that his 
company, which was preparing to go to Quickichwick the next week 
to view the spot, then consisted of twenty families of very good 



48 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Christians, " and," he adds " in the meantime we crave your secresy 
and rest;" he remarks also that "our company increases apace from 
divers towns of very desirable men, whereof we desire to be very 
choise." The appeals thus made resulted in a vote passed May I3. 
1640 (Colony Records), by which the entire question was committed 
to the friendly care of the Governor, Deputy Governor and Mr. 
Winthrop, with full power to grant the request of Mr. Ward and his 
followers, provided that they give their answer within three weeks, 
and that they build in Cochichawick before the next session of the 
General Court. It seems probable that immediately after this vote 
preparations were made for a settlement in Cochichawick, for we find 
that in a letter from John Woodbridge to Winthrop written in March, 
1641, he says that some of his company had "sold themselves out of 
house and home," and were greatly desirous of securing a settlement 
as "soone as may be." The relationship existing between John 
Woodbridge and Governor Dudley^ gave a certain assurance that the 
desires of the settlers would be granted. It is noticeable that Nath- 
aniel Ward has entrusted the matter to John Woodbridge ; it was not 
prudent for the Wards to disturb the authorities too often with their 
requests, and in the meantime. Ward had received a grant of six hun- 
dred acres on the Merrimac, and his son was put down for the adjoin- 
ing parish of Penticutt. It was through the influence of Messrs. 
Ward and Woodbridge that men from Newbury and Ipswich were 
licensed to settle in Cochichawick, and it is likely that the settlement 
began there as early as 1641 or 1642. It is a fact that on September 
19, 1644, meetings were called at Rowley to form the church at 
Haverhill and at Andover, and as the various delegates were unable 
to agree,2 they separated to meet again October 2, 1645, and then the 
churches were formed, and Mr. Woodbridge was appointed to the 
church at Andover. 

The settlement here was small at this time, for Hubbard says 
that the meeting was called at Rowley because Andover and Haver- 

' Woodbridge married Dudley's daughter. 

' Hubbard's History of New England. Ed. 1828. Chap. 48. " But when they were 
all assembled most of those who were to join together in church fellowship at that time 
refused to make the confession of their faith and repentance, because, as was said, they 
declared it openly before in other churches upon their admission into them. Where- 
upon the members of the churches not being satisfied, the assembly broke up, before 
they accomplished what they intended." 










v7 r-»-lr£?^/5 



—/I J"V>1o 









25OTH ANNIVERSARY 49 

hill, " being then but newly erected were not capable to entertain them 
that were likely to be gathered together on that occasion." With 
his church about him, there was nothing further for Mr. Wood- 
bridge to do than to acquire the legal title to his settlement, and 
accordingly he sought out Cutshumache, the sagamore of the Massa- 
chusetts Indians, and for the sum of £,6 and a coat Cutshumache sold 
his title, and on the 6th May, 1646, the Indian went before the 
general court at Boston and confirmed the sale. The story of the 
transaction is complete in the Colony Records.^ The final words are 
as follows , " This purchase ye Corte alowes of and have granted ye 
said land to belong to ye said plantation for evr, to be ordred and dis- 
posed of by them." From this time disappears the old Indian name 
Cochichawick, and Andover, name dear to the settler from Hants, 
name now known throughout the world, was the name applied to the 
new community ; the brook is still called Cochichawick brook, while 
the pond itself, which to - day as in the earliest times, draws down to 
its placid bosom the forests and the adjacent hills and the sky, bears 
its old Indian name. 

So on the 6th day of the 3rd month of the year 1646, after the 
gathering of a church, by peaceful barter with the Indians, and by 
enactment of the general court, Andover as a legal entity came into 
being, and in commemoration of this event come into this presence 
today all who are bound to her by whatever ties of kinship or of 
filial regard. To many of us it is the birthplace of ourselves, and of 
our ancestors in six or seven generations, and therefore to us it is a 
day of fond retrospect in matters having an immediate family interest. 
Here the first settlers selected their home, and here were worked out 
those puritan ideas for the establishment of which they left their 
native land. On this festival day there is no place for criticism ; the 
occasion calls rather for fervent gratitude that patience, fortitude and 

1 Colony Records, Vol. 2, p. 159. "At a Genrall Corte at Boston the 6th 3th mo 
1646 Cutshamache, sagamore of ye Massachusetts came into ye Corte & acknowledged 
yt for ye sume of 6/ & a coate wch he had already received, hee had sould to Mr John 
Woodbridge, in behalfe of ye inhabitants of Cochicawick, now called Andiver, all his 
right, interest, & priviledge in ye land 6 miles Southward from ye towne, two miles 
Eastward to Rowley bounds, be ye same more or lesse, Northward to Merrimack Ryver, 
pvided yt ye Indian called Roger & his company may have librty to take alewifes in 
Cochichawick River for their owne eating ; but if they either spoyle or steale any 
come or other fruite, to any considrable value of ye inhabitants there, this librty of 
taking fish shall forever cease & ye said Roger is still to enjoy foure acres of ground 
where now he plants. This purchase" ut supra. 



50 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

self-reliance have here triumphed over enormous discouragements, 
and that sublime faith has been the inextinguishable torch that guided 
many a weary heart through difficulties otherwise too great to be 
borne. Besides, what is there to criticise ? Did not our puritan an- 
cestors live up to the full height of such intelligence and character as 
they possessed ? Were they not working out their own plans, in their 
own methods, and in their own habitation ? It is true that they 
visited upon Quakers harsh inflictions ; they fell into the awful delu- 
sion of witchcraft ; they expelled Mrs. Hutchinson as a teacher of 
doctrines they believed to be ruinous; they drove out Roger Williams 
as a disturber of their political tenets. So far as charges against the 
Puritans are based upon facts, they stand freely confessed ; there is 
no disposition here to make them appear other than what they are ; 
modes of thought change in like measure with conditions of life, and 
that is all the answer that we today need to make to any criticism 
from within or without. Our methods are not as the methods of our 
ancestors ; our thoughts not as their thoughts : true progress, alike 
in physical and intellectual well-being, forbids that they should be. 

To the student of history it must ever be a matter of wonder 
how and where our ancestors learned their method of self-government. 
In the country from which they came they had, and could have had, 
no experience in a form of government so salutary and so completely 
their own as that which they established in New England. As a con- 
gregation of worshippers they had, and insisted upon, a government 
by themselves of all matters relating to their church, and when, after 
their settlement in this country, they found themselves charged with 
civic as well as religious duties and obligations, it was but natural that 
the congregational system should be extended to the civil government ; 
and thus, from the day of the earliest settlement, where or when we 
cannot say, the town meeting became the means by which the civil 
and ecclesiastical affairs of the settlement were regulated, and through 
it the communities enjoyed complete self-government. Scarcely less 
wonderful than this was the practice of making record of everything 
that was transacted in the church and town alike. Beyond the 
recording of births and marriages, their experience had given them 
nothing of this kind, yet it was necessary that the grants of land 
should be recorded, and the practice of recording them developed soon 
after the settlement into the system of county registries, while an 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 5 1 

equal utility would easily convince them that the records of town 
meetings might be very convenient for reference. Besides this, one 
cannot avoid the thought that our ancestors felt they were engaged in 
a unique and heroic undertaking, and that therefore they must trace 
clearly all the stages of their progress. Andover forms no exception 
to these excellent practices, and from the first beginnings of the town, 
no doubt records were kept. But in those early days the records were 
always in the custody of the town clerk, and as the incumbent of the 
office changed from time to time the books suffered in the transmis- 
sion, and the result is that for the first fifteen or eighteen years, after 
the birth of Andover, we have no consecutive record. The leaves of 
such portions of it as are left are stained yellow with age, and their 
edges are often worn. This is true alike of the records of the town 
meetings and of the grants of land. It is not a fact, as is sometimes 
asserted, that the early records were burned ; but April loth, 1698, it 
was voted that Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Capt. Christopher Osgood 
and Mr. Andrew Peters be a committee to "receive anew ye records 
of ye towne lands according to what papers may be found that have 
been upon record before, our towne record being taken away by ye 
enemy indians." The record from 166 1 down to the present time is 
legible and entirely consecutive. But whatever befell the records for 
the first eighteen years had happened to them as early as 1656, for the 
clerk of the meeting held on the 9th of March of that year at the 
house of John Osgood, had written in his record, as a justification for 
having a new book before him, that the old book was rent and in 
many places defective ; and he further states that the meeting " was 
chiefly warned and intended for the entering and recording of Towne 
orders now in force and particular mens graunts of Land," and the 
vote is written down requiring the names of all persons who had con- 
tributed to the rates and charges of the town to be entered in the new 
book. But later, this vote was "disannulled" "by the major part of 
voats at a lawfull town meeting the 2 of December 1661," and two 
lines are drawn across the original record ; of this latter meeting how- 
ever there is no trace. 

While we are thus deprived of any extended knowledge of any- 
thing that happened, let us say from £643 to 1661, one leaf of great 
value is found in the old records and is now in a form available to all ; 
however reminiscent this list may have been in its origin, of its an- 



52 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

tiquity there can be no doubt ; that is confirmed alike by the hand- 
writing, by the discoloration, and by the condition of the margin of 
the sheet ; but there is no date upon it and nothing by which its exact 
time can be determined. It purports to give the names of "all the free 
househoulders in order as they came to towne." No date is fixed when 
they or any of them arrived in Cochichawick, but we know that 
Richard Barker was settled here as early as 1643, for the industry of 
Miss Bailey has discovered a deed running to him and bearing that 
date, in which he is described as of Cochichawick. The records of 
the North Parish Church, gathered in 1645, give the names of the ten 
persons who gathered at the foundation ; in that list is found the name 
of Richard Blake who stands fifteenth in the roll of the early settlers ; 
if therefore full credence is to be given to this list of freeholders, it 
would fix the date of the arrival of Blake and of all on the list prior to 
him as sometime preceding October, 1645. 

The words " in order as they came to towne " are to be under- 
stood as meaning in the order in which land was granted to them. 
This would make Mr. Bradstreet the first grantee of land in the town, 
which is not unlikely to be the fact, though from records available 
elsewhere, it would seem that as late as 1645 he was a citizen of 
Ipswich, and in the history of Ipswich his removal to Andover is 
noted in 1645. 

The growth in population was not rapid ; the list of the first free- 
holders is probably accurate as the list of rateable polls, say up to the 
year 1650. It contains only twenty-three names, but by a vote 
passed in town meeting January 6, 1672, requiring every citizen to run 
the bounds of his estate with his " naybors " before the last of May, 
on the penalty of forfeiting five shillings and the same amount for 
each month's delay thereafter, a list is found of thirty who had run 
their bounds in accordance with the order, while fifteen are marked 
under the unequivocal heading of " Delinquents." To the honor of 
four of the unfortunate fifteen it should be said that they afterward 
did their duty, and a line was drawn through their names. At the 
time of this town order the number of freeholders may be taken as 
forty-five, but whether the list was made out in 1672 or 1676, when 
the vote was reaffirmed, no man can tell, for the list is without a date. 
Abbott^ states the rateable polls in 1679 as 88, and from year to year 
they increase at an average rate of about four freeholders per year. 

' History of Andover, p. 180. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 53 

It is the peculiar felicity of this two hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary that, without any charge of egotism or vain boasting, we may 
point with pride to the beauty of our scenery ; to hill and intervale, 
rich, and producing wealth under the influence of intelligent agricul- 
ture ; to mill streams turning the wheels of profitable enterprise ; to 
Andover's honorable and respectable history ; to the ready response 
she has given to every call that state or nation has made upon her ; 
to her admirable public schools ; to the private institutions that, 
founded by her own citizens, have sent her fame throughout the 
civilized world. And now if it be true, as an old philosopher has said, 
that nothing is evolved which was not first involved, if it be true that 
all the oaks that adorn your hill sides were contained in the acorn that 
first broke its shell under the influence of sun and rain, may we not 
claim that this full florescence of Andover that delights the eye and 
fills the mind today, is only the ripening and expanding product of the 
puritan germ ? and shall we not go one step further and claim that in 
all that she is, and all that she has been, Andover is the representative 
puritan town ? 

All these are high claims, but they are made after careful perusal 
of the records, and in full knowledge of the facts. From beginning 
to end 1 have read the records of Andover, with a filial fondness, and 
in the full belief that this is a day having a sweet human interest for 
every descendant of the early settlers, — a day when we turn back 
from the noise and delights of modern progress to tread in the foot- 
steps of those who have gone before. Those records are in many 
places hard to decipher, and the subject matter rarely ceases to be 
commonplace and dull. Great events like the descent of Indians 
upon the town are not mentioned save as it was necessary to raise 
money for defence ; a dark shadow like witchcraft left no mark except 
upon the records of the selectmen, who laboriously spread out their 
efforts to put the five children of Samuel Wardwell with reputable 
families, who " were to find them with suteable food, clothing and 
physick " during their terms of service, and " double suite of apparell " 
at the end of it. But commonplace as the records are, one rises from 
a perusal of them with the thought that these people were serious, 
businesslike and direct ; that they did, and required every man to do, 
his citizen duty up to the full measure of his ability ; that they 
governed themselves diligently, trying to make the burden fall equally 
on all who should bear it. 



54 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Of course, in this clearing in the wilderness, at first there were no 
roads ; but free communication from house to house, and from the 
dwelling houses to the meeting house, was demanded, and accordingly 
it is not surprising that almost the first vote found in the records 
relates to repairs upon the roads : " Every male person of sixteen 
years and upwards shall upon three or four days warning by the 
survaiers attend the mending of the highwaies upon forfit of double 
damages for every day neglect by any person ; and soe likewise every 
teame ; that is every man seven shillings a day ; and every teame ten 
shillings a day so neglected.^" 

It was essential also that the grants of land should be recorded, 
in order to avoid confusion of ownership, and accordingly, Edmund 
Fawkner^ was chosen to enter them, and was "to be allowed twoe shil- 
lings of every particular man for his house lott and accomodations 
provided every man bring in his graunts to him within seven years." 
This important work was afterward undertaken by Dudley Bradstreet ^ 
and later* he was chosen again to " enter all graunts in ye great towne 
booke for which he is to have two pence a graunt in money, or else 
he is not obliged." With a view again to determine the boundaries 
of estates, a vote was passed ^ requiring every proprietor of lands, 
unfenced or lying in common, to run his bounds with his " naybor " 
before the last of May, marking them by trees, or heaps of stones, or 
holes in the ground, upon penalty of five shillings, and the same 
amount for each month's neglect thereafter ; and this vote was re- 
affirmed in January, 1676, and all returns were to be made to the 
selectmen before the last of May of that year, upon the penalty of 
five shillings for each neglect. This penalty was to be collected by 
the constables, and if they failed to distrain it, they were to pay the 
forfeit themselves. Reflecting for a moment that the constables 
themselves were fined five pounds if they declined to serve after being 
elected to their office, we see how efficient was the governmental 
machinery that our ancestors set in motion over themselves. 

The town meeting was the centre from which radiated all the 
authority of the town. Here in the church or meeting house the 
freeholders met in committee of the whole to discuss the affairs of 

* October 17, 1661. * January i, 1677. 

* February 3, 1661. 'January 6, 1672. 
"January 5, 1673. 



«J 


























250TH ANNIVERSARY 55 

the town, and all government proceeded from it, clad with authority 
and might. Majorities always governed. By a vote of December 20, 
1664, seven persons authorized by law to vote were declared to be a 
quorum, and their acts were to be as " authentick and valid as if the 
whole town were assembled." Attendance upon town meeting was to 
be not only encouraged, but enforced, and, accordingly, for a failure 
to attend any legally notified meeting, a forfeit of six pence is imposed, 
unless the persons in default shall "satisfie the Towne or such as 
they shall depute that they had just and necessary cause to be 
absent " ; and that a citizen might not keep the letter of the law by 
dropping into the meeting house to escape paying his fine, it was 
further voted, that no citizen in attendance upon the meeting should 
" depart from it without leave of the Towne till the meeting be dis- 
solved, and soe declared by the Selectmen or the maior part of the 
inhabitants then assembled." By a vote passed later,^ the fine was 
increased to twelve pence for each day's neglect of town meeting, 
and as Mr. Bradstreet, Richard Barker, George Abbott, Sr., and John 
Johnson were not present at the meeting, they were condemned to pay 
six pence each to the town for the " present day's neglect." These 
votes no doubt had their desired result, but it may be that some petu- 
lant inhabitant, finding himself at town meeting and condemned to 
stay there until full discussion was over, took revenge by incessant 
talking. To check his flow of eloquence, votes were passed "^ that, " if 
any man shall speak in the towne meeting while anything of towne 
affaires is either in voting or agitation after ye moderator hath com- 
manded silence twice, he shall forfeit twelve pence per time, and said 
twelve pence shall be levied by the constable, and this order to stand 
good for ever." Odd as these votes sound to us today, they sufficiently 
attest the importance that our ancestors attached to the town-meeting, 
and to the performance there by every citizen of those duties that 
devolved upon him as a member of a self-governing community. 

The subjects discussed in town meeting were as various as the 
numerous interests of a town that demanded protection for everything 
it could justly claim as its own, and that had an exalted notion of self- 
preservation. Accordingly there are found most careful regulations 
covering property in which the whole body of citizens had an interest, 

' January 18, 1664. 

' January 5 and February 2, 1673. 



56 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

with a view to give each citizen some portion of the product, or make 
the acquisition of it easy for him. Valuable fishing privileges in the 
Merrimac were granted to Capt. Bradstreet and his associates.^ These 
privileges were to extend up the Shawshin from its confluence with 
the Merrimac to the bridge, then twenty rods up the Merrimac, 
twenty rods down the Merrimac, then twenty rods from each of these 
last lines into the stream. This privilege was to last for twenty-one 
years, with no rental for the first ten years, and for the last eleven 
years they were to pay to the town ten shillings per annum. But yet 
the public is protected, for they are to sell "base" at 5d per piece 
provided those that buy, buy two at one time, and, that the highest 
equity may be preserved, and the interest of the buyer and seller alike 
may be protected, the party buying is to choose one, and the party 
selling to choose the other.^ And in 1696^ liberty is given other 
citizens to build a fish "ware" in the Merrimac, "opposite Major 
Bradstreet his ground," and these grantees were also to sell to "ye 
inhabitants shad, att any price, not exceeding twelve pence ye score, 
and ye inhabitants of the town to be supplied before strangers." The 
nimble alewife coursing up the brooks to Haggett's (then Blanchard's), 
or Cochichawick, to lay his spawn, was the subject of an almost yearly 
vote ; under a penalty of five pounds none of the fish were to be caught 
except for consumption in the taker's family ; * the fish courses are to 
be kept open, and finally it is enacted that the fish may be caught 
only at certain definite places and upon certain fixed days of the week. 
And so the cedar that grew about the pond, useful alike for rails 
and timber, was guarded with a view to its preservation. No man 
was to be allowed to cut it down in order to sell it out of town, with- 
out the authority of the selectmen ; ^ here the forfeit was ten shillings 
per tree ; but where trees had fallen down, any citizen might go into 

1 February 2, 1680. 

' " Ye partie buying to choose one, ye partie selling to chose another, and if ye partie 
buying chose rather to pay 3d per piece for base in money ye owners of sd priviledge shall 
not refuse ye same provided as abovesd they buy 2 at a time each." 

' May 4. 

* March 7, 1686. Voted and passed that noe fish called alewives shall be stopped by 
any person whatsoever in their going up into ye pond, but what shall be caught att ye mill 
in their passage except for eating in their families upon ye forfeiture of five pounds and sd 
person to be suable that shall soe doe by any that finds themselves agrieved." 

' January 6, 1672. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 57 

the common or swamp and cut shingles out of the fallen trees, and 
even sell them out of town, provided he paid eighteen pence for every 
thousand that he sold out of town. This was a vote of 1672, but 
after January i, 1675,^ none were to be taken out of town upon a 
penalty of twenty shillings for every thousand shingles. In 1677 the 
old vote was restored, but still no tree was to be felled for shingles, 
only such trees as had fallen down might be used. So eagerly was 
this valuable growth protected, and we are not surprised to find that 
when Joshua Woodman, a new freeholder, wanted enough shingles to 
cover his house, he was allowed not exceeding seven thousand " which 
is to be old shift and short shingles ;" ^ and it seems quite natural 
that the selectmen should be ordered ^ to prosecute Thomas Fuller at 
the next term at Salem or Ipswich, for cutting down a great many 
cedar trees on the bounds of Andover contrary to the town's order 
and without their knowledge. 

The town in its early days presented an admirable example of 
that species of policy known in political economy as the Mercantile 
System, a system whose cardinal doctrine was that acquisition only 
is wealth. This economic principle was well established in many 
European countries at the time our ancestors settled here, but greater 
experience in commerce, and a less selfish view of trade, have left 
nothing of this system. Yet to the settlers of a little New England 
village, to which nothing ever came except by the efforts of its 
citizens, a community that was weak in everything but its desire to 
help itself, this system was needed even for its preservation, and the 
utmost economy was necessarily practised over all its slender re- 
sources. It was out of the stern necessities of their situation and 
the very isolation of their position that grew their encouragement of 
the tanning industry,* the grist mill,^ the saw mill, the fulling mill,^ 

1 February i, 1674. 

' March ii, 1678. 

« " Ye fift day of March 1676/7." 

* February i, 1675. 

' January 18, 1664. 

•March 6th, 1681-2 : " Granted libertie to any man in ye towne to sett up a saw mill 
£Eulling mill & grist mill upon Shawshin River near Rogers Brooke to take up twentie acres 
of Land adjoining to ye sd place and to enjoy ye same for ever with ye privileges of a 
townsman," and a committee of five is appointed "to act in this affair to make articles 
with such person or persons as they shall judge fitt and their sd act to be binding to ye 
towne." 



58 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

and even the iron mill.^ But after all their hardy industry triumphed, 
and later we get evidence perhaps that the town, outgrowing its home 
market, was reaching out its hands for a larger field of effort. In 
1697^ sufficient timber was voted to Major March of Newbury to build 
two vessels of not exceeding fifty tons apiece, provided he build the 
same in Andover. But shortly after this, March was called into the 
Indian War, and the plan slumbered until 1710,^ when it was again 
voted in terms less confident than before, that " Col. March should 
have liberty of trying the experiment of building a sloop in some con- 
venient place for launching into Merrimake Rivers," and if he did not 
find sufficient lumber already felled, he was to have the liberty of 
" cutting half a dozen sticks for some choise use for the vessell." For 
some reason which does not appear, March did not complete his sloop, 
for in 1 71 2* liberty is granted to John Aslebe to cut "what timber is 
necessary for the Building of a vessell of about forty tons." But here 
the record of Andover as a ship building town closes ; no further men- 
tion is made of the sloop, whether she was finished or launched, or of 
her name or fate. Of what use she could have been, except perhaps 
as a hay or ferry boat to cross the Merrimac, is not apparent now, for 
a sloop of such size could never pass Mitchell's Falls, and would have 
been equally useless in crossing the rapids where the Lawrence dam 
has since been built. 

There was nothing too minute to escape the directing care of the 
citizens or of the selectmen, their chosen representatives. A new 
cemetery is called for by the citizens living on the west side of Shaw- 
shin ; one acre of land is granted them for that purpose, provided 
they "fence it handsomely against swine and other creatures" within 
a year from the date of the vote.^ The funeral cloth is becoming old 
and rusty, and accordingly it was voted and passed^ " that a handsome 

' Voted and passed that ye towne will allowe such incouragement both of wood land & 
mine towards ye setting up of iron works as may be most convenient for ye same & least 
prejudiciall to ye to'^-ne & not to damnify ye mill upon Shawshin River, provided ye owners 
agree with ye Committee according to ye towne order, ye saw mill in sd order excepted." 

And January 19, 1697, it it is voted that " any mine yt may be found upon ye common 
shall be free for any man to digg & carry to sd works." 

' January 19, 1696. 

' March 5, 17 10. 

* January 12, 1712. 
' February 6, 1892. 

• May 24, 1703. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 59 

piece of Black Broad cloath be bought for a funerall cloath for the 
towne use." The grass in the burying ground in the North Parish is 
profitable for hay or pasture, and John Abbot, who gets forty shillings 
a year as janitor of the meeting-house, pays five pence per annum for 
the use of the burying place "for feeding with sheep and calves," but 
he is not to suffer any other creature to come into it, and he is to keep 
up the fcnce.^ Mrs. Carrier and her children are smitten " with that con- 
tagious disease the small pox," and, as some person was so inconsider- 
ate as to suggest that the care of them belonged to the town, the select- 
men, with great dignity, write a letter to the family of the Carriers 
commending them to the gentle care of their relatives, and absolving 
themselves from any responsibility for their presence in the town, 
because the selectmen had warned them out on their arrival into town. 
But at the same time the selectmen laid strict charge upon Walter 
Wright, the constable, not to allow the patients to come out of their 
houses to the public meeting, or elsewhere, and " what they want, let 
them acquaint you with, which provide for them out of their estates." ^ 

This was a self-contained and self-governing community, and 
therefore, as might be expected, there are found from time to time, 
records of votes in town meeting, by which new freeholders are 
admitted to citizenship, and the terms are always prescribed ^. In 
this way the stamina of the organization was maintained of those 
"choise" citizens that Woodbridge had in mind when he wrote to Gov. 
Winthrop. But if the community had a right to choose freeholders, 
it would equally be entitled to expel any persons who were likely to 
be a charge upon the town. Hence the vote warning out Mrs. Car- 
rier and her brood, and later the constable was ordered to warn three 
men and their families, "least they prove a futer charge to the 
Towne." * 

The government established by our ancestors had many theo- 
cratic elements ; as a government of towns, it was by freeholders, 
that is, owners of lands and houses in their own right, for a church ; 

* October ag, 1689. 
•October 14, 1690. 

' January 4, 1674. " Graunted to Francis Faulkner ye privilege of townesman, up- 
on ye amount of ye land he now enjoys he paying for ye same as others doe, that is ten 
shillings for twenty acres." 

* January 30, 1719. 



6o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

the church, as we have seen, was the central meeting house for pur- 
poses alike of government and of religious instruction and edification ; 
its site was always the geographical centre of the community that 
gathered it, and, like the sun, it was the source of light and all higher 
enkindling influences. Hence the authority that surrounded the 
preacher, and hence his position in the puritan community, a position 
at once dignified and esteemed with the highest reverence. Andover 
formed no exception in these matters to the regular puritan method, 
and it is not surprising therefore, that many of the early votes of the 
town relate to the support of the clergyman and the maintenance of 
his official dignity in their midst. Hence it is that, as early as i66i,^ 
a vote is found defining to Mr. Dane his rights and privileges, and 
confirming to him his grants of land : and when later some dispute 
had arisen about the rates to be paid by new settlers, probably toward 
the minister's support, it was voted ^ that this rate was to be ten 
shillings for every householder, " the one half in wheat, ye other half 
in indian come," and, as the tendency to get out of public obligations 
lightly was as well understood then as now, it was felt necessary to 
add that both should be " merchantable and at the usuall prise it goeth 
in towne from man to man." An hundred acres of land were held by 
trustees for the minister's benefit,^ and it was doubtless from this that 
Mr. Woodbridge and his successor, Mr. Francis Dane, got their supply 
of wood ; but afterward this was changed, and the minister got wood, 
or expected it, by direct contribution from the citizens, each man 
providing wood in proportion to the amount he paid toward the min- 
ister's rates.* But here too human weakness had its way, and in 
1690 so many of the good folks were delinquent, it was voted ° that the 
selectmen [be authorized to] issue their warrants to the constables to 
"distreine upon each deliquent after ye rate of three shillings p load & 
provide sd wood themselves out of sd fines, ye remainder to be to ye 

1 February 17. 

2 January I, 1676. 
»i668. 

* January 3, 1686. " Voted that Mr. Barnard's wood shall be payd in long wood & to 
be proportioned as the towne shall afterwards agree." "Voted and passed that ye Select- 
men for this year shall be a committee for this year for ye proportioning of each man's 
share of wood to be payd to Mr. Barnard according to every man's rate for this year which 
they are forthwith to doe & to signifie to ye inhabitants." 

' January 5, 1690. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 61 

use of ye towne." In 1693 it was necessary to reaffirm this vote, and 
as Mr. Barnard after that still suffered from the delinquency of his 
parishioners, a vote was finally passed ^ by which he was paid eight 
pounds in consideration of his supply of wood, and the burning ques- 
tion was settled. 

Scarcely less important than the support of the minister was the 
matter of seating the people in the church. Our ancestors had 
brought over from England strict ideas of social precedence, and, 
though they started here on the same dull level of privation and hard- 
ship, their attention to this inferior detail was scarcely less devoted 
than that paid to the doctrines of the teacher ; votes were constantly 
passed, appointing committees to attend to this duty, and as constantly 
heart burnings and jealousies arose out of their decisions. Yet from 
their final word there was no appeal, and " if any person, either male 
or female, shall sitt in any other place in ye meeting house than where 
they are appointed by ye aforsd Committee they shall forfeit for 
every such offence to ye use of ye towne 20 ^^ to be forthwith gath- 
ered by ye constables by order fro sd Committee and if the constable 
faileth to doe as aforesd, to pay sd sum himself." ^ There is a clear 
and determined tone about this vote, as if the matter were one of 
tremendous importance, and one about which there was and could be 
no equivocation. The work on this committee was odious to all affected 
by it, and no wonder that blunt Dudley Bradstreet refused to dis- 
charge the irksome task, protesting "against haveing anything to do 
with it." '^ 

This was a social concern ; it related merely to one of the pro- 
prieties within the sacred precincts ; but alongside of it were grave 
matters of discipline that also received the attention of the citizens. 
The young persons up there in the upper gallery of the meeting house, 
the gallery that in summer was hot and stifling and in winter was too 
cold for endurance, would naturally, under the influence of the long 
exercises and the uncushioned seats, fall into a state of impatience, 
not to say of physical pain, that could be repressed only with great 
difficulty. Hence the necessity of the tything men to keep them in 

' March 12, 1704. 
^ February 2, 1680. 
' March 5, 1693. 



62 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

order. Coming into being in our early annals, these picturesque^ 
officials continued their useful function down to the year 1841, when 
for the first time there ceases to be a mention of them in the records 
of the town meeting. Their general duty was "to have inspection 
over the boys in the galleries on the Sabbath, that they might be con- 
tained in order in time of publick exercise ; " and later their juris- 
diction was extended to the hour between the services. When these 
boys came rushing out of their gallery at the expiration of the forenoon 
service, many a devout worshiper, I am afraid, might well have 
applied to himself Milton's description of the hell hounds in Paradise 
Lost, as they, 

"bursting forth, 

Afresh with conscious terrors vex me round. 

That rest or intermission none I find."* 

All this " prophaneness of ye Sabbath tended to ye great dis- 
honour of God, scandall of religion, and ye grief of many serious 
christians," and the tything men and constables are ordered^ to "take 
care to pvent such great and shameful miscarriages which are soe 
much observed and complained of." But the trouble continued with- 
out abatement apparently, for March 16, 1696, more strenuous orders 
are passed by the selectmen requiring the tything men to report in 
writing to the minister the names of all offenders ; it was the minis- 
ter's duty to give them fair warning for their first offence, and if after 
this admonition they are again detected, the officers are to turn them 
over to the next justice of the peace "that they may be punished for 
such crimes as the law directs." Twenty-four tything men were 
appointed by this order of March 16, 1696, two of whom were to act 
in the galleries each month. The tything man's duty was uncongenial, 
and there is one record of a refusal to serve. Joseph Stevens had 

• Josiah Quincy in a letter to Harriet Beecher Stowe gives a description of the tything 
man as he, while a student in the Academy, saw the official in the South Church : " In 
the left hand gallery sat the ladies, in the right the gentlemen, in the midst of whom and in 
front sat the tything man, with his white pole, three or four cubits in length, the emblem of 
his dignity and power, and in his right hand a short hazel rod, which ever and anon in the 
midst of the sermon, to the awakening and alarm of the whole congregation, he would, 
with the whole force of his arm, bring down with a ringing slap on the top of the gallery, 
shaking it, at the same time, with a terrific menace, at two or three frightened urchins who 
were whispering or playing in a corner." 

' Book 2, line 800. 

* March 4, 1691. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 63 

been appointed in 1682, but, as he declined the office, he was ordered 
by a town vote ^ to sit among the boys for three months to come, or 
to pay twenty shillings to the constable for the use of the town, and a 
like penalty was to be paid by all others who should receive election 
to the office and then refuse to serve. The tything men had also a 
certain police duty other than this to perform, for, "ye i6th ye i 
month 1679/80" the selectmen pass solemn vote as follows : 

" We have also ordered that whosoever shall enterteine any person or persons 
in his house whout just occasion and without there be sich buisness as shall be 
warrantable and as shall render a satisfactorye account thereof to sich as have power 
to make inquisition after sich persons, being so found after nine of ye clock at night, 
the persons so entertaining shall by ys order be liable to pay to ye use of the towne 
the sum of five shillings for every sich offence and on ye last day of ye week at night 
and Sabbath day nights young persons are [not] alowed to be abroad nor enter- 
teined without just occasion extraordinarye, and the tithing men are required care- 
fully to inspect sich houses where psons are wont to resort that by their carfull 
inspection this order may be observed and prosecuted, ye above sum to be gathered 
by ye constable duely by warrant from ye selectmen and ye like penaltie of five 
shillings is to be alike gathered of those psons yt are unseasonably from their owne 
houses." 

So careful was this little community that the slumbers of its 
hard working citizens should not be broken after the curfew rang, and 
so watchful were they that the safeguard of home influences might be 
cast over the morals of its younger members. 

The cause of sound learning did not flourish in Andover in the 
early days, a fact all the more surprising in view of her great reputa- 
tion later as a center of educational influence. By a colonial statute 
passed in 1647, every town of fifty families was required to maintain 
a school for the public education of children. The number of rateable 
polls in 1679 was eighty-eight, while in 1700 it had increased to one 
hundred and forty-five. It seems surprising therefore that no school 
was established until about 1702. But yet the town had not been 
wholly without instruction, for the ministers and the " school-dames " 
no doubt gave private lessons, and in 1679 (January 5) the following 
vote was passed: — " Graunted to Goodwife Barker, Jr., in considera- 
tion of ye benefit ye towne has received by her teaching their children, 
six acres of land somewhere near her husband's pond ground." The 
Mrs. Barker here mentioned was doubtless a " school-dame," and the 

^ January 7, 1683. 



64 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

wife of Richard Barker, Jr., and the services she rendered at a time 
when education was as difficult to gain as money, justly entitled her to 
the recognition that this vote implies. February 3, 1 701, it was voted 
that a " Convenient Schoolhouse be erected at ye parting of ye ways 
by Joseph Wilsons to be twenty foot long and sixteen foot wide." The 
building was soon finished, for, by a vote^ passed the following year, 
two pence per week were to be paid for instruction in reading, and four 
pence for writing and ciphering. In 1703 ^ the selectmen were author- 
ized " to agree with a schoolmaster for the year ensuing, and to assess 
upon the inhabitants as the law directs to Rays money to defray 
our minister's Rates, a Schoolmaster's Salary," and other necessary 
charges. But schoolmasters in those days were hard to find, and it is 
a fair inference that none could be found until 1704,^ when Dudley 
Bradstreet agreed with the selectmen to take the school for ^^8 12s. 
per quarter. From this time there seems to have been no diffi- 
culty in obtaining schoolmasters, one at least was regularly engaged, 
and as the town increased and instruction was needed in the outlying 
districts, the schoolmaster went the rounds of the town. This is well 
shown in the case of Timothy Walker, — significant name, — who was 
engaged in 1728 * for one quarter at the rate of £$0 per annum. He 
was sent to "ye South end of sd Town and Contineed there untill the 
Last of January, and then was sent and Contineed in middle of the 
Town unto ye last of February next, and then was sent behind the 
Pond on ye 3d day of March, and to Continew there fourteen-nights, 
and then ye ist March was ordered to ye middle of ye Town and 
continied there nine weeks." In 17 14 it was voted that the select- 
men and schoolmaster should " compound together with the school- 
master's Complyance wherewith to serve the one halfe part of his 
time in the north precinct and the other halfe in the south precinct 
for the benefit of the whole." ^ A school house in the South Parish 
was finally finished in 171 8, and it would seem that this school was 
equal in all respects to the one first established in the North Parish, 
and they are referred to generally as the Centre or the Grammar 
School. And in 1754^ it was voted that the Grammar School should 
keep the whole year round. This vote deprived the children in the 

1 January 5, 1702. * December 23. 

•March I. 8 March 16. 

' Nov. 24. * March 8. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 65 

outlying districts of their opportunity to get instruction, and question 
arose at once what should be done for them. In 1754^ the town 
declined to raise any fund for the support of " Reading, Righting and 
Cifering Schools in the outscurts of the Town." But the agitation 
was kept up, and in 1758 ^ a vote was passed creating six schools in 
the outskirts, but no such schools were to be within one mile and a 
half from the centre schools, and they were to be elementary schools 
for " Reading, Righting and Cifering." The curriculum for the 
Grammar Schools was broad enough to fit boys for college, but 
when Phillips Academy was founded in 1778, the school at the 
South Parish gradually lost its importance and soon disappeared 
for ever, while the school in the North Parish continued to exist, 
though feebly, until 1799, when, with the foundation of Franklin 
Academy, it finally died out, and the function of a Grammar School 
as a fitting school in the classics ceased altogether. 

As the first fruits of the new school system, in March, 1736, 
it was voted " there shall be a law book bought at ye sd town's cost 
for ye use of ye said town, — for ye town clerk and his successors to 
have it in keeping." 

These votes will suffice to show how far the citizens had control 
over their own affairs ; what a measure of self-government they en- 
joyed, and how careful they were to preserve to their own uses such 
slight advantages as they possessed, and how, as they increased in 
their ability to support themselves, as they got a firmer hold on the 
land, their view broadened out to the necessity of progress in intellec- 
tual and moral directions. The subjects of the foregoing votes were 
closely personal to the citizen ; they arose out of necessities that had 
their origin among the settlers as co-laborers to one end in a small 
community ; these citizens discharged every duty, they met every obli- 
gation manfully and faithfully, nor shall we find a less degree of 
loyalty in that larger relation, when they were called by the central 
authority at Boston to do their duty as a part of the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, nor when, emancipated by their own act, as part of the 
State of Massachusetts, they fought the battle for a complete inde- 
pendence of the mother country. 

Alongside of these votes, that indicate high capacity for 

' May 20. 

' September 21. 



66 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

rational conduct, must be placed an historical fact that points to an 
abnegation of reason and a complete loss of self-control. In the 
session of the general court held May lo, 1648, a vote was passed 
that the course that had been taken in England for the discovery of 
witches, that is by watching them a certain time, should be adopted 
here, and it was ordered that this custom, as being the best and surest 
way, be put in practice immediately. This vote was undoubtedly 
designed to meet the case of Margaret Jones of Charlestown, who was 
executed for witchcraft in 1648. She was accused and convicted of 
having so malignant a touch that she communicated deafness, vomit- 
ing, or some violent pain upon whomsoever she laid her hand.^ This 
was the beginning of the persecutions for witchcraft, and from time 
to time other unfortunates met a like unworthy end up to the year 
1692, when the detestable hurricane broke in fury over Salem and 
Andover. In Salem Village, or Danvers as we know it now, some 
young girls, at first for sport, but finally crazed with the spirit of in- 
vestigation into the occult world, had worked their minds into such a 
state of frenzy that they fell into an hysteria, from which the crude 
medical science of the day could not relieve them. The doctors, thus 
baffled, referred their afflictions to the visitation of an evil spirit ; this 
suggestion in a Christian community made the matter a proper subject 
of inquiry by clergymen, and the latter, after special prayer and con- 
sideration, solemnly decided that the girls were possessed of a devil. 
This finding was at once communicated to the girls, and they immedi- 
ately suggested certain persons of no worth about the town, vagrants 
or objects of charity, as the source through which Satan had entered 
into them. Too literal an interpretation of scripture texts had given 
the devil a very definite existence in puritan communities, and as 
his alleged indwelling in these dependents was likely to make them 
undesirable citizens, it is not surprising that the town was speedily 
rid of their presence. We are not informed that the sufferers were 
restored to health, but their experience, in the opinion of their 
neighbors, had gifted them with an enormous power ; it was felt that 
they had a clairvoyance to detect disease, as infallibly as the lode- 
stone reveals iron, and, accordingly, whenever a sickness baffled the 
limited intelligence of the doctors, the spectre evidence of these girls 
was sought, and they invariably referred the ills of sufferers to the 

^ Hutchinson's History. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 67 

witchery of some person. It happened in 1692 that the wife of 
Joseph Ballard of Andover had been sick for a long time with a disease 
that the doctors could not cure ; tired of the uncertainties of medicine, 
her husband determined to test the surer method of spiritual cure, 
and, accordingly, two girls from Salem were summoned to pass upon 
Mrs. Ballard's case. With great solemnity, on their arrival in the 
town, they were escorted to the church, and Mr. Barnard, the associate 
minister with Mr. Dane, uttered fervent prayer for their guidance and 
exhorted them, quite pertinently it would seem, to tell the truth. 
With infallible accuracy, no doubt, the clairvoyant girls pointed out 
the sources of the malign influence ; persons in Andover and in other 
places were indicated, and were at once arrested upon warrants and 
imprisoned in Salem jail. 

With this as a beginning, the madness of witchcraft started in 
Andover ; like some foul miasma it tainted for almost a year the whole 
community, sweeping away to death, or harsh imprisonment, or the 
terrors of a trial conducted by hostile judges, the innocent child, 
the blameless wife and mother, and the industrious father of the 
family. 

The jail at Salem was filled with alleged lymphatics, half starved 
and half frozen, bound hand and foot, who, though conscious to them- 
selves of no wrong, were yet the victims of the pitiless scorn of their 
neighbors, and knew full well that the whole apparatus of government 
was interested in their conviction. Forty-one persons of Andover 
were indicted ; of these eight were condemned, and of the eight, before 
the general jail delivery, three were executed. Their names are 
Martha Carryer, Samuel Wardwell and Mary Parker. I name 
them to honor them ; let there be pity only for their accusers and 
judges. 

The frenzy pervaded every rank in the social scale of the town. 
In the family of Thomas Carryer, it hurried ofif the wife to the scaffold, 
imprisoned the sons, and made a little girl of eight years a witness 
against her mother ; at the other extreme of the social scale, the vener- 
able Francis Dane, then in his seventy-sixth year, suffered the condem- 
nation of a daughter and granddaughter, while one other daughter, a 
daughter-in-law, and two other grandchildren were accused. The 
spectre evidence had pointed its finger to the wife of Dudley Brad- 
street, while Dudley himself, who as justice had examined some of 



68 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

the accused, growing weary of the task, and fearing probably that his 
conduct might subject himself to accusation, sequestered himself 
until the fury was spent. 

It is not easy to conceive the turmoil and horror of those 
months. No man or woman could tell, no matter how exemplary 
his life or conduct, or how charitable his deeds, when the accusa- 
tion would be made against him ; nor if once arrested, no accused 
person could say what trusted friend might appear to condemn 
him. In the trial of cases a certain terror seemed to pervade the 
mind, of the witnesses ; leading questions were put, and answers having 
a meaning only for the moment were given. Again and again, as 
those who were examined, awoke out of their trance of terror, they 
changed their evidence, declaring that they had no knowledge of the 
things to which they had formerly testified, that they had given their 
evidence under fear and compulsion, that they had said the things 
they had been told to say. As the fell frenzy raged through the 
community, the only way to avoid an accusation was to become an 
accuser, and, accordingly, the number of the afflicted increased every 
day, and the number of the accused in like measure. Those who 
confessed and recanted escaped, while those who stoutly maintained 
their innocence, like Martha Carryer, were convicted. 

It is difficult to define accurately the psychological aspects of 
witchcraft. To bring a charge of this nature no doubt often served 
the uses of private malice and revenge ; but here was a people of 
industrious habits, condemned by the nature of their existence to 
harsh manual toil, and likely therefore to develop a strong common 
sense in matters of every day concern ; yet black cats and broom- 
sticks, and baptisms by the devil, and firm compacts with him, had so 
far got the ascendency over their minds that this mad frolic of un- 
reason possessed them for a twelvemonth to the exclusion of every 
finer feeling. And, stranger still, they refused to listen to their once 
venerated guide. The manhood of Rev. Francis Dane, who for forty- 
four years had been the minister of the church, revolted against the 
senseless excitement, yet no one listened to his words, and he barely 
escaped an accusation himself. To his honor, be it said, that through- 
out it all he stood stedfastly against every manifestation of the evil, 
the one sane mind in all the community. But this was a people of 
extreme religious fervor ; they walked with God as no other people 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 69 

had walked with Him before, and as other peoples in the dim outlines 
of history 

" Oft forsook 

Their Living Strength, and unfrequented left 

His righteous altar, bowing lowly down 

To bestial Gods," 

SO perhaps this people in the very excesses of their zeal, turned aside 
for the moment from their customary reliance upon His goodness, and 
beheld Him chastening them for their sins, and allowing the spirit of 
malice to prevail among them. It is a sad blight upon an otherwise 
respectable community, and I turn from it and its sickening horrors, 
with a certain sense of congratulation that nothing akin to it has ever 
again reared its dark and odious presence in this community, and that 
the liberalism of the present day is the surest guaranty against its 
second malevolent approach. 

When our ancestors settled in these parts, they found the red 
man the sole possessor of the soil ; he lived an easy indolent life, 
arousing from time to time only to such activity as would procure him 
sustenance for the moment, then falling back into a dreamy lack of 
thought that lasted only so long as the pangs of hunger were allayed. 
He was differentiated from the brute by the fact that he did recognize 
somewhat supernal in nature, something other and more spiritual than 
himself, whose slave he was ; and he did have some store of tradition, 
which by crude characters or by word of mouth he could communicate 
to his children. From many mixed motives our ancestors put them- 
selves at once in a helpful attitude toward these Indians ; as sitting in 
the outer darkness of heathendom, they were proper receptacles of 
religious light ; as beings prone to steal, unacquainted with truth, and 
not unskilful in murder, they were to be brought under the restraining 
influence of English law. So it happened that as early as 1643, Ciit- 
shumache and four chiefs of neighboring tribes were induced to put 
themselves, their subjects, their lands and estates, without any constraint 
or persuasion, under the government and jurisdiction of the Massa 
chusetts ; in the same instrument they promised to be true and faithful 
to the government, to give speedy notice of any conspiracy against it, 
and they expressed their entire willingness to be instructed in the 
knowledge and worship of God. The pious Eliot soon began his 
labors among them, and the result was that by 1670 numerous bodies of 



JO ANDOVKR, MASSACHUSETTS 

them had been collected into communities of " praying Indians," as at 
Natick or Wamesit, while still others as " converted Indians " became 
farm laborers and were instructed in useful civilized arts. But still 
from the first the settler looked upon the Indian with suspicion, and 
felt that he must be armed and equipped against any ebuUition of 
Indian caprice. Hence it is that even our early Andover community 
had its body of armed soldiers ; indeed every citizen was a soldier, 
bound as much to protect the commonweal as to support his own 
family. 

For a time all things are fair ; Massasoit and his older son. 
Alexander, live in peace with New PK-mouth. But when they pass 
from the scene, Philip, the younger son, becomes sachem. Nature 
has given him a lithe and supple frame and immense endurance ; his 
experience has filled his mind with an implacable hatred of the Eng- 
lish ; he is the genius of Indian discontent and perfidy ; he conspires ; 
he treats ; he breaks his compacts, and finally, to the dismay of every 
pale face, he unites in league with him all the red men of New Eng- 
land : fleet as the wind but noiselessly as a zephyr, messengers run 
from tribe to tribe ; beacon fires blaze from hill to hill, and the whole 
country is in terror. A regiment is raised to meet the hostile bands 
that are gathering in the distant settlements. Twelve citizens of 
Andover are in the forces that meet and defeat Philip in the great 
fight at Pettysquamscot, December i8th, 1672. Philip is in hiding all 
the winter, but with the return of spring he again emerges, and the 
swift current of destruction sweeps eastward with ever increasing 
forces. Northampton, Springfield, Brookfield, Lancaster, Marlbor- 
ough, Groton and Chelmsford, all sufifer. Day by day Andover awaits 
her turn, and finally, on the 8th of April, the approach of the Indians 
is noticed by Ephraim Stevens ; he at once rides back to town to 
warn the inhabitants, with the Indians in close pursuit ; without dis- 
turbing other settlers, the red men hasten to the house of George 
Abbott in the fields opposite this church ; Joseph Abbott, son of 
George, is killed at his work, and Timothy, another son, a lad of 
thireeen, is taken prisoner. The town is now thoroughly aroused and 
every reasonable measure for defence is taken. Garrison houses 
are erected here and there, and, by order of the general court (May 
3, 1676), Andover, Chelmsford, and four other border settlements, are 
created frontier towns. This vote allowed the soldiers of Andover 



250TH ANNIVERSARY .- 7 1 

who were in the service elsewhere, to return and go on duty in the 
town, and this increase in the military force for a time frightened 
away the savages. 

As compared with other settlements Andover suffered but 
little in this war ; besides the melancholy death of Abbott, some 
few buildings were burned, some cattle killed or tortured. King 
Philip met his death in August, 1676, and with him went out the 
hopes of his allies for further victories and hostilities for a time 
ceased. But meagre as the losses by this first war may have been, 
who shall tell the anxieties of those few months ? with what fore- 
bodings of pending evil the housewife did her daily tasks, working 
alike in the house and field, while her husband was on duty in the 
war ? how tenderly she pressed her babes to her bosom at night, for 
fear that the morrow might bring who could tell what dangers and 
distress ? Who can adequately say what passed within the yeoman's 
mind, as, looking upon his growing crops, and the few poor buildings 
that housed his family and stores, he thought of the dangers that 
lurked in the forest, or that dogged his footsteps as he went forth to 
his fields. 

The wars between France and England that began in 1688 and 
did not end until 1 761, furnish a record of bitter strife. In spite of 
occasional treaties, the hostility of France to England never slum- 
bered ; but on the continent it called forth the marvelous generalship 
of Marlborough that added imperishable glory to the English arms, 
while in the colonies the period ends with the luminous figure of 
Wolfe, dying in the full tide of victory on the Heights of Abraham, 
an intrepid commander who softened the harsh outlines of a soldier's 
life with the meditations of a scholar, and a sweet human tenderness 
that might well have sprung from the bosom of a Sydney; and 
out of the din and clangor of these wars, there arose above the 
horizon one star of steady aspect and promising beauty, that was 
destined to take its majestic course to the zenith, and, as George 
Washington, to shine without its fellow in the firmanent. In politics 
it gave to England the great names of Walpole and Burke, and the full- 
orbed radiance of Pitt ; while who can tell what influences operating 
in the colonies produced those serious reflections, that afterwards 
reached their perfect expression in the Declaration of Independence .' 
And the experiences of the colonists in these wars were like dragon's 



72 ANCOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

teeth, that, sown in the ground, sprang up a race of warriors ready 
armed and equipped for the contest in 1775. 

It was a part of the French plan of campaign to court alliances 
with the Indians and to encourage in their minds hostility to the 
English ; and, supplied as the Indians were with guns and rum and 
ammunition by the French, they became a formidable enemy to 
colonial progress. In all these wars Andover and her citizens were 
involved. In 1689 John Peters and Andrew Peters were killed on 
the way to Haverhill, and in the same year four other citizens died in 
the war that was waging in the eastern counties. In 1698 the 
Indians eluded the watch, and, making a descent upon the town, 
burned some houses and took away the town records ; they also killed 
Pascoe Chubb and his wife and three other persons. Chubb had in 
1693 assembled at Fort Pemaquid a council of Indians, in order to 
arrange for an exchange of prisoners ; he had taken care to have the 
Indians well supplied with liquor, and at a signal given by him, the 
English in the council began a massacre of the Indians, and killed 
several of them. This unfair act justly incensed the Indians against 
him, and, together with the French, they beseiged the fort, and 
threatened to torture the commander unless he surrendered : after 
securing his own personal safety Chubb gave up the fort. For this 
act of cowardly incompetence he was imprisoned for a time in the jail 
at Boston, and finally, on his own petition, he was released and allowed 
to go to take up his residence in Andover; and here he was in hiding 
at the time of the Indian outbreak ; with savage delight the red men 
killed both him and his wife, satisfying thus a desire alike to shed the 
pale-face blood and to take vengeance on a treacherous enemy. 

Plutchinson relates that at this same attack also they captured 
Col. Bradstreet and his family, and that, after taking them from the 
house for a distance, the Indians finally released them from fear of 
being pursued by a superior force. 

The frequency of these attacks, and the general fear of further 
outbreaks, led to great activity among the citizens ; some of them 
were busied on picket duty ; others were at the blockhouses, while 
still others were engaged in building additional defences at Deer 
Jump and Peters' Landing ; four block houses were built near the 
Merrimac in 1704, and another was set up in Shawshin fields. This 
activity on the part of the citizens resulted in a decrease of Indian 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 73 

attacks, and nothing of a serious nature occured after 1698. The 
Indians withdrew gradually towards the lands of their French allies, 
and the colonists as time wore away carried active war into the 
countries of the Indians. 

It was in one of these expeditions into the Indian country 
that Jonathan Frye, a citizen of Andover and a student in theology, 
who had not yet reached his majority, covered his name with 
praise. Bound by an engagement of marriage to a girl whom his 
parents did not approve, he had, in order to overcome his grief and 
chagrin, joined Capt. Benj. Stevens's company to go to Lake Winnipe- 
saukee to find the hiding places of the Indians. The company to 
which he belonged took part in Lovewell's fight on the shore of Saco 
Pond on the 24th of September, 1725. The Indians attacked the 
camp while the English were at their dovotions, and Frye, who, as 
chaplain, was conducting the service, at once began to fight, and, 
according to the record, he and another scalped the first Indian that 
was slain ; and he kept up the contest until the middle of the after- 
noon, when he fell severely wounded ; unable any longer now to fight, 
he encouraged his comrades by his loud intercession to the God of 
armies for their preservation and success. As day declined, all his 
hopes were realized, and his prayers answered ; the savages gave up 
the fight and withdrew. The soldiers than began to march back to 
their camp ; for some miles Frye, aided by two comrades, was able, 
though in dreadful pain, to make his way ; but finally with a sublime 
resignation, he begged his friends to save themselves and to leave him 
to his fate, and, lying down upon the ground, he told them he should 
never rise again. Soon after the friends withdrew reluctantly from 
him, charged with tender messages to his father expressing his hope 
in the future life and his fearlessness in the near presence of death. 
" Whereupon," as the reverened chronicler relates,^ " they left him ; 
and this Hopeful Gentleman, Mr. Frie, who had the Journal of the 
March in his pocket, has not been heard of since." But the sweet 
and touching pathos of his fate would not allow his name to fall into 
oblivion ; and the story of his suffering and death is embalmed in 
many a conceit of our colonial muse, while there seems no doubt that 
the melancholy tale is depicted in the Roger Malvin's Burial of Haw- 
thorne. 

^ Rev. Thomas Synunes. 



74 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

The cessation of Indian hostilities about the town enabled the 
citizens to devote themselves to their peaceful agriculture and manu- 
factures ; the population grew apace, and a large measure of prosperity 
was enjoyed. But the mother country was watchful of everything 
relating to the colonies, and, accordingly, when Pitt began to resist 
the claim of France to all that country which is now included in 
Canada and the region west of the Alleghanies, he naturally called 
upon the colonies for aid. And so it was that men of Andover fought 
in the reduction of Cape Breton. Sixteen of them met their death at 
the capture of Louisburg in 1745, ^^ ^^ consequence of exposure 
there, and the faithful record of their names in the town's list of 
deaths in the king's service is perhaps honor enough. It was in this 
war that Joseph Fry and James Fry, citizens of Andover, entered upon 
their successful careers. Later, the troops were ordered to reduce 
Nova Scotia, Here too their efforts were successful, and her inhabi- 
tants were driven out of their sweet and cheerful Acadia, some, like 
Evangeline, to escape to distant countries, while still others, taken 
prisoners, were quartered about the towns of New England. Twenty- 
two or more of these fell to Andover, and their support was a matter 
that the town regulated at its town-meetings, voting for the French 
such supplies as a not over generous charity dictated. ^ 

While some of the men of Andover were reducing Nova Scotia 
in 1755, others were engaged about Lake George, and in this expedi- 
tion five of them met their deaths, and in all the contests that took 
place between 1755 and 1760, with the exception of the battles of Fort 
Duquesne and Quebec, they were present and contributed to the final 
success of the Enghsh side. Joseph Frye took his part in the reduc- 
tion of Nova Scotia, and later we find him dissenting from the capitu- 
lation of Fort William Henry ; and it was when returning as a prisoner 
of war, after the capitulation, that he was dragged into the woods by 
his Indian guard, and stripped of his clothes ; and just as the Indian 
was on the point of murdering him, Frye put forth a superhuman 
strength, and, killing the savage, escaped. Almost without clothes, 
he wandered for three days or more, and, with nothing but berries to 

1 The first mention of these supplies is in the selectmen's records November 14, 1758, 
where we find Major Osgood is allowed six shillings for two loads of wood "for ye french," 
and two days later Moody Bridges gets one shilling for 1/4 bushel of beans. Further sup- 
plies are granted in 1759 and 1760, and, finally, in the fall of 1760, many of the Acadians 
are removed to Springfield. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 75 

eat, finally found his way back to Fort Edward. At Crown Point he 
also did a hero's work. His record throughout the war is most credit- 
able ; nowhere is he lacking in bravery ; nowhere can there be found 
anything else than the highest loyalty to the crown, and the most 
tender solicitude for his men. 

In her conduct toward the Colonies, England had been true to 
her traditional policy ; in their helpless infancy she had let them 
resolutely alone ; but as they increased in numbers and wealth, their 
value as a tributary became obvious to her ; hence she took away their 
charter in 1686, and later when she needed additional soldiers, she 
impressed the colonists into her service, and finally when she needed 
more revenue, she ruthlessly taxed them. It was this attempt that 
raised the mighty protest that resulted in our Revolution, and no- 
where more vigorously than in Andover was this proposition combated, 
nowhere was there a clearer view of the rights and duties of the 
colonists. As we approach this period in the town's records, the page 
suddenly leaps from the commonplace and the dull ; the handwriting 
is better, and the spelling and grammar improve ; there is an appear- 
ance of clear ideas and definite convictions. Up to this time there 
had indeed been contests, but they were for the protection of the 
home, or for the safeguard and aggrandizement of England. Today a 
principle is involved that is the legitimate product of one hundred 
and twenty-five years of colonial thought and experience, and out of 
the trials and perplexities of the French and Indian wars, there has 
sprung up a race of warriors fired by that fine new spirit of patriotism, 
that was to stimulate and cheer them through manifold trials until 
they reached a complete independence. 

The history of Andover in the Revolution might well be written 
out of the records of her town meetings. In October, 1763, there 
were passed unanimously instructions to Samuel Phillips, then the 
representative in the general court, that he is not to give his assent 
to any act by which internal taxes are imposed in any other way than 
by the general court. Here is a complete denial of the claim of 
England to tax her colonies against their will, and the American 
case could not be better stated. But the taxes were imposed, and in 
May, 1768, a committee of seven citizens that had been appointed to 
devise some measure of relief, report that the citizens should endeavor 
by precept and example to suppress extravagance, idleness and vice, 



-]6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

and promote industry, economy and good morals, and •' by all prudent 
means endeavor to discountenance the Importation and use of Foreign 
Superfluities and to promote and Incourage Manufactures in the 
Town." The opposition to England did not always run in the peace- 
ful channels of legislative enactments ; but of all conduct involving a 
breach of the peace, the citizens of Andover express their " utter 
detestation and abhorrence, and they call upon the selectmen, the 
militia and the magistrates to use their utmost Endeavors agreeable 
to Law to Suppress the same^;" Mr. Phillips is instructed ^ also to 
" use his best endeavors in conjunction with other members of the 
General Court to suppress all riotous unlawful assemblies and to pre- 
vent all acts of violence upon the persons and substance of his ma- 
jesty's subjects in this province." 

The passage of the act imposing a tax on tea, iron, glass and salt, 
aroused a violent protest, and at once the citizens meet and agree 
that they will not import any of the articles taxed, and that they will 
not make any use of foreign tea or coffee, or suffer it to be used in 
their families.^ The days now are full of opposition to the home 
government. In February, 1774, the Philadelphia Resolves are 
adopted as the full sentiment of the town ; meanwhile, the old flint 
locks that have been slumbering since 1761 are put into condition for 
immediate use ; military companies are forming, and everywhere in 
the horizon the clouds are lowering, which must soon break in fury 
over the heads of the English authorities. Ten town meetings are 
held in the year 1774 ; June 29th it is voted to take an inventory of 
the ammunition belonging to the town, and if found insufficient, steps 
.are to be taken to increase it as the law directs.* Moody Bridges, the 
representative to the general court, is instructed to join with his 
fellow members, if they deem it expedient or necessary, " in resolving 
themselves into a Provincial Congress " ; and as subjects who still wish 
well for their master, the vote adds as the reason, " in order to consult 
and determine on such Measures, as they judge will tend to promote 
the true Interest of his Majesty and the Peace, Welfare and Prosperity 
of this Province." 

But strong as the desire may be to have the king and his 
ministers put themselves into a right position toward the colonies, 

1 September II, 1765. * May 21, 1770. 

•October 21, 1763. *September 15, 1774. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 77 

the tide of events is ever rushing in the inevitable direction. 
November 14, 1774, it is voted as expedient that the military com- 
panies meet half a day each week for training and instruction ; 
December 26, 1774, the town accepts every article and clause of the 
resolve of the Continental Congress requesting the non-importation, 
non-exportation, and non-consumption of British goods, and the 
citizens in town-meeting assembled vote that if any person of twenty- 
one years of age and upwards shall neglect to sign the non-importation 
agreement, he shall be cut off from all commercial intercourse so long 
as he shall continue thus inimical to the public good, and his name 
shall be published in the "Essex Gazette" as an enemy to his coun- 
try ; provisions also are adopted for the enrollment and compensation 
of the militia; January 2, 1775, a committee of sixteen is appointed 
to act as a Committee of Safety, who, by their life and conversation 
are to use all their influence to suppress mobs and riots, and to en- 
deavor to bring about that reformation in life and manners " so much 
to be wished for and earnestly supplicated by all good men ; " February 
13, 1775, it is voted that the constables pay over all the provincial tax 
they may have collected to the provincial treasurer, and a committee 
is appointed to give all needful aid to the constables in their work ; 
and, as evidence of a stronger determination, all enlisted soldiers are 
to be provided with bayonets, and a committee is appointed to collect 
all bayonets that may be in the town ; March 20, 1775, a committee is 
chosen to see that the non-importation agreement is carried out to the 
letter ; to secure the greatest possible improvement in the breed of 
sheep and to increase the herds ; to inculcate the utmost frugality in 
all kinds of expenditure ; to see that no other mourning for the 
dead be used than a black crape or ribbon on the arm or hat for men 
and a black ribbon or necklace for women ; that no trader shall increase 
the price of his wares ; that all traders shall take an inventory of their 
goods, and after October 10 shall not expose for sale any of the pro- 
scribed British goods upon penalty of the publication of their names 
that they " meet with the merits of enemies to their country ; " and 
the committee shall inspect the conduct of every person in the town, 
and, upon finding any violating the articles of association, shall publish 
their names in the '• Gazette," " to the end that all such foes to the 
rights of British America may be publicly known." 

Meanwhile, to give effect to these votes, arms, powder, uniforms 



78 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

and all the accoutrements of war were being gathered from every 
quarter ; four hundred men were in training, and it was out of these 
that the first companies were formed in February, 1775. Capt- 
Benjamin Farnum commanded fifty-four men of the North Parish, and 
Capt. Benjamin Ames fifty men of the South Parish, and both com- 
panies were attached to the regiment of Col. James Frye, and as 
minute men were eagerly watching for any summons that might come 
from Boston. Besides these two companies there were two hundred 
and twenty-three officers and men in the militia, not attached to any 
regiment, who also awaited a signal for action. The days in April — 
that wonderful April of 1775, when the whole country seemed to have 
been touched by the breath of June — pass too slowly by ; from day to 
day the citizen soldiery goes to its task in the field armed as if going 
to war, ready to start at a minute's notice ; the 19th April comes ; no 
matter by whom or what the news is brought, whether by fleet 
messengers galloping through the settlement, or by bell ringing out in 
violent alarm, but tJie British are marching to seize the stores at 
Concord. Instantly the minute man leaves his work, and falls into 
line of march towards Concord and Lexington. Three hundred and 
twenty-nine men of Andover go forth that day in the new cause of 
armed resistance to oppression. They arrive at Lexington too late to 
be of service, and accordingly they follow the retreating regulars back 
as far as Cambridge. 

Meanwhile the centre of interest is moving from Concord and 
Cambridge towards Charlestown and Bunker Hill ; and finally June 
17th dawns, and there at the top of the hill are the breastworks 
that the ardor of the patriots has thrown up with consummate 
diligence during the night, while the watch on board the English 
men-of-war are stupidly announcing with the advancing hours the 
" All's well," as if in unconscious prophecy of the great events that 
were dawning with that auspicious morn. Three companies of 
Andover men are at the battle ; and everywhere encouraging his 
soldiers and showing the utmost coolness in the presence of danger is 
Colonel James Frye ; engaged in other duties when the fight began, 
with all speed he hastens to the scene of action ; on his way he 
rebukes some companies halting by the wayside, and still rushing on 
he declares : " This day thirty years I was at the taking of Louisburg. 
This is a fortunate day for America, we shall certainly beat the enemy." 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 79 

His prophecy for that fight was futile, but it was proven true in the 
final result. The women and children at home in Andover, and 
the old men and the infirm, hear the heavy firing at Bunker Hill, and 
with anxious hearts await results ; what son or husband or brother 
might not go down in the awful but yet glorious struggle ? Anxiety 
and alarm at first prevail ; then a woman's pity and charity leap to the 
front, and bandages and lint, and household nostrums are prepared, 
with all despatch to be sent for the benefit of the wounded. By good 
fortune the fight was on Saturday, and on the following day many a 
citizen of ihe town repaired to the camp to give relief to the suffering. 
There was Rev. Dr. French, the preacher to the South Parish, capable 
alike to minister physical and spiritual relief ; the Rev. David Osgood, 
a man of sensitive nature who shrank from the horrors of war, but yet 
was consumed with patriotic zeal ; Major Samuel Osgood who had 
charge of the commissary ; Bimsley Stevens, the adjutant general ; 
Samuel Phillips, senior, and Samuel Phillips, junior ; Samuel Johnson, 
a colonel and the early recruiting officer of the region ; Major Thomas 
Poor, who first entered the volunteer militia as a captain, and Colonel 
Enoch Poor, who was destined ere the war closed to be advanced to 
the rank of general, and to become the friend and companion of 
Washington and Lafayette. All these claimed Andover as their 
home and birthright, and today we recite their names in the roll of 
her honored and patriotic children. 

Shift the scenes of the war as they may, the same steady zeal 
fires the patriots both at home and in the field. The minute 
men are to be paid out of the town treasury.^ Everywhere there 
is fear of an invasion of British soldiers or an uprising of Tory 
sentiment. Watchmen are appointed to patrol the streets from 
nine at night to an hour after sunlight ; travelers abroad at night 
must tell their business ; if after being commanded to stop they 
fail to do so, the sentinels may fire ; or if, indeed, they stop, but 
refuse to answer, they must be taken before a magistrate for exam- 
ination ; and if any person appointed to the watch refuse or neglect to 
serve, he is to be deemed " as unfriendly to the good order and unity 
of the town." 2 As time goes on there is no abatement of ardor, and 
finally the first note of separation from the mother country appears on 

1 Third Monday, May, 1775. 

2 May 15 and 29, 1775. 



8o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

the town records. It is the meeting of June 12, 1776, and this is the 
sole record : 

" The question being put, whether should the Honble Congress for the safety 
of the Colonies declare them Independent of the Kingdom of Great Britian, you will 
solemnly engage with your Lives and Fortunes to support them in the measure, it 
passed in the Affirmative unanimously." 

The citizens of Andover had no doubt what would fill the 
measure of their desire, and they wasted no words over it ; and 
the town clerk of this same year (1776) had the good fortune to 
copy at length into the town records within three weeks after this 
vote the Declaration of Independence. This was the end of 
British authority in the colonies, and for the first time the town 
meeting to be held in March, 1777, is called "In the Name of the 
Government and People of Massachusetts Bay ; " all warrants preced- 
ing this had been issued in the name of the existing sovereign of Great 
Britain. 

Time is not at hand to give in detail all the history of Andover 
in the Revolution. From Lexington, through Valley Forge to York- 
town, her sons are found ever conspicuous in the field ; her quota of 
men is always full, and during the whole period of the war she sent 
into the service over six hundred men. And these men were well 
sustained in return by the town ; the families of non-commissioned 
officers and privates are to be supplied with necessaries ; ^ every 
soldier is to be provided with one pair of shirts, two pairs of stock- 
ings, and one pair of shoes and a blanket ;^ ;£ 1,800 are voted to be 
placed in the hands of the various officers commanding the companies 
of militia to enable them to fulfil their contracts with the soldiers ; ^ 
every soldier engaged in the town's service is to receive twenty-five 
bushels of Indian corn per month, or the amount of the circulating 
medium that shall be equivalent to the price of the corn when the 
>ame shall become due,* and finally as a bounty to be paid annually in 
addition to every other encouragement, each soldier is to receive 
linety-five Spanish dollars for each year he shall continue in the ser- 
vice, and the town further votes to make up any depreciation in the 
pay in continental money given by the general government to the 
soldiers.* 

' November 18, 1777. * June 20, 1780. 

* February 16, 1778. ' December 20, 1780. 

• July I, 1779. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 8 I 

As familiar as the story of the battles of the Revolution, is the 
history of the decline in value of the circulating medium ; the paper 
currency issued by the Continental Congress had not even belief or 
confidence in the government to rest upon, and consequently each 
issue of it only made it less valuable ; the result was a great decline 
in its purchasing povirer ; ;£300 are voted for highways in 1778, 
but in 1 78 1, ;;^20,ooo are voted for this purpose; in October, 
1780, ^42,000 are voted to purchase the town's quota of beef 
for the army, but by December 21, 1780, the amount voted for this 
purpose reached the colossal sum of ^^78,748 ; while it is voted that 
;^ 1 75,000 be raised to pay the wages of the men that had enlisted for 
three and for six months. These last amounts represent the high 
water mark of inflation, and December 24, 1781, the selectmen and 
town treasurer are directed to liquidate all the outstanding indebted- 
ness of the town on the basis of one dollar in specie for seventy-five 
dollars in currency. This uncertainty in the value of the circulating 
medium added immeasurably to the hardships of our ancestors in the 
Revolution ; but, as every other difficulty in those times, it was met 
and conquered, for, in 1782, the appropriations are back again to their 
modest dimensions, and the country was once more on a specie basis ; 
and there, so far as Andover had any influence, it would certainly 
remain, for October 17, 1785, Andover votes with only two dissenting 
votes as follows : — 

" Whereas it has been said that a Neighboring Town has lately by a Public 
Vote expressed a disposition for a paper Currency, 

Voted, — That Joshua Holt Esqr- be and he is hereby instructed in case any 
motion shall be made in the General Court introducing a Paper Medium rigorously 
and perseveringly to oppose the same as being a measure in our Opinion to promote 
Idleness, dissipation and dishonesty, and by destroying the Morals of the People to 
bring on the ruin of the Commonwealth." 

One hundred and eleven years have not lessened the truth here 
expressed, and I suggest that this vote be amended by inserting after 
the words " paper medium," the words " or silver," and that, so 
amended, it be handsomely engraved and framed, and presented to the 
Senate of the United States to be hung upon its walls, to the end that 
it may teach that forgetful assemblage what a little inland town 
regarded as rudimentary in 1785, and what uniform experience has 
dictated, and what common sense and business integrity demand. 



82 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

It is impossible within the limits assigned for this portion of your 
exercises to do adequate justice to the record of Andover in the Revo- 
lutionary struggle. It is a noble record of noble deeds. There in its 
full development is the spirit of patriotism ; the capacity to do and to 
sufifer, that enabled the citizen, whether at home or in the field, to do 
valorous deeds or undergo sacrifice in behalf of his town and colony ; 
there is the shrewd intelligence that directed all the movements of the 
difficult struggle ; there is also the faith in the rectitude of their cause, 
that, clothing them as it were in a religious armor, sent them forth 
in the crusade for freedom and complete independence, determined on 
victory. 

To him who shall address the town on her three hundredth anni- 
versary, I leave the pleasing duty of presenting the record of Andover 
in the Civil War. That record has been compiled by a citizen of the 
town with great care and research, and there it stands a possession for 
all time, without ornament or illustration, telling its inspiring story of 
fidelity to duty, of personal bravery and sacrifice. In the press of 
topics that demand utterance on this occasion, this reference to Mr. 
Raymond's admirable compilation should suffice, but, founded as this 
address is upon the theory that in all her achievements Andover has 
always been true to her puritan origin, I can but pause here to ask 
how far the puritan element entered into the services she rendered to 
the nation, when the authority of the government was defied by the 
South. 

The wars of puritanism have always been founded on some exalted 
principle in morals or politics. This is as true of the Revolution in 
1775, as it was of that first great puritan war whose tragic event 
was the death of Charles I. Contrast with these the wars of France 
in the early years of the century ; they were fought only to further the 
ambitious schemes of Bonaparte. The Six Weeks War in 1866 was 
fought solely for the aggrandizement of Prussia, while the Franco- 
German War of 1 87 1 had no other ground than the jealously of Na- 
poleon III of the growing power of Germany. But the Civil War in 
America was founded on the principle of human freedom, and it was 
a battle for human rights. Our ancestors of the revolutionary 
period spread out to the world in the Declaration of Independence 
their fine generalities on the equality before the law of all men ; yet 
there was scarcely one of the signers of that document that did not 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY ' 83 

maintain slaves in his own household, slaves vv^hom he doubtless 
treated mercifully and regarded almost as members of his family, but 
though human beings, these slaves were, in the eyes of the law, mere 
chattels that could be bought and sold. This profession and practice 
of freedom were strangely at variance with each other, but the custom 
of slave-holding was thoroughly established, and the convenience of 
the system was beyond question. But the moral law overrides the 
conveniences of men, and when this noxious germ, gathering strength 
and insolence out of the fetid soil where it throve, not content with 
debasing to its service great intellects that had been consecrated to 
freedom, sought to dictate terms to the national government, and 
finally denied its authority, then high above the strife sounded the 
dictates of the moral law, and eighty years of paltering compromise 
were wiped out by a sacrifice of blood and treasure such as the world 
had not seen before. It was a puritan triumph, won on puritan prin- 
ciples. 

Never did the flag seem more precious than when the union it 
symbolized was rent asunder ; never did love of country come laden 
with a deeper sense of duty ; and nowhere more loyally than in Ando- 
ver was there a response to every call that the great solemn man in 
Washington made for troops. At once upon the firing on Fort Sum- 
ter, a military company was formed, and when, in August, 1862, there 
was a call for more men, and a draft seemed inevitable, at a special 
town meeting Dr. Jackson proposed, and the citizens unanimously 
voted, that the town should furnish volunteers rather than conscripts 
to fill up its quota, and " would deem it a dishonor and a stain upon its 
patriotism to send soldiers raised by conscription for the defense of 
Liberty and the Union." Here is an exalted ideal of citizen duty, the 
noblest utterance in the records of Andover. And at this town meet- 
ing the sagacity of Benjamin F. Ward well, leaping from effect to 
cause, proposed — and the town with but one dissenting vote ac- 
cepted — a preamble declaring slavery to be the cause of the existing 
insurrection, and a resolution calling upon the President to declare 
without delay its abolition throughout the length and breadth of the 
land. 

These resolutions sufficiently attest the spirit of Andover ; it is a 
spirit full of the moral virtues of a puritan ancestry ; it is sagacity, 
courage, fortitude and patriotism, and that nothing might be wanting 



84 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

to fit the deed to the word, the action to the spirit, Andover raised 
and sent forth to the service upwards of six hundred men. What 
sacrifices they made ; what wounds and privations they bore ; what 
forms of death ever imminent they gazed at ; what hope and love and 
reverence for duty sustained them ; what chivalric deeds they wrought 
for freedom and the Union, you \ sir, who saw the first blood shed at 
Baltimore, and were still in the service when Lee surrendered at 
Appomattox, and you, members of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
know full well. The orator of 1946 will miss the inspiration of your 
presence, but he will tell to ears unfamiliar with the story the full 
detail of your duteous service to your town and country, and will pay 
to your memory the tribute that a faithful allegiance to a good cause 
must ever call forth. Let this thought cheer you as you soon go 
forth to your pathetic floral service in memory of your comrades ; 
and let it sustain you as, from time to time, involuntarily you draw a 
little more closely together in your encampment hall, because another 
companion has gone out to join the ranks beyond. And mothers and 
fathers and widows of the soldiers of Andover, whose hearts still cry 
out for your dead, remember that their names on the tablets in Memo- 
rial Hall, which is also your public library, are moulding, with the 
gentle discipline of letters, the minds of youth to higher conceptions 
of duty, and mutely but not less surely are adding to the total of 
human worth by all the wealth of that costly sacrifice. 

Honorable and wholesome as has been the record of Andover, 
there is no wish to claim for her in civil and military affairs any 
eminence above her sister towns ; they were all of them steadfast 
supporters of the system to which they gave their allegiance, and it is 
honor enough ever to have been found with no halting step in that 
distinguished companionship. But high as is Andover Hill above the 
general level of the plain, so high above all the early settlements with 
the exception of Cambridge, is the preeminence that Andover has 
taken in educational matters. And so it is to the hill, 

To yonder hill, in learning's fair demesne, 

Fair as the shades where trode the wise Hellene, 

that we must turn to find the true distinction of Andover. 

Samuel Phillips, the third of the name in the direct line of 

^ Major William Marland. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 85 

descent, graduated from Harvard in 1771. He had been a diligent 
student, and, early after his graduation, he turned his thoughts to the 
establishment at Andover of a school where boys might be instructed 
in the "great end and real business of living." His enthusiasm in 
this work secured the co-operation of his father, Samuel Phillips, and 
of his uncles John and William. Citizen as he was of the North 
Parish, he naturally sought for a suitable location there ; but failing to 
buy the high lands near where the Kittredge house since 1785 has 
reared its stately colonial beauty, he purchased land on Andover Hill 
that was thenceforth to be dedicated to sound learning and piety. 
Upon the land thus bought there was a wooden building, one story in 
height and thirty-five feet long by twenty feet in width; this he con- 
verted from a carpenter's shop into a schoolhouse, and here was 
started in 1778 that Free School which became in 1780, by enactment 
of the general court, Phillips Academy. This school was the first in- 
corporated academy in the country,^ and the same brain that conceived 
its existence planned its course of study, without other guide than his 
own good sense and cultivation. The social position of the Phillips 
family assured to the school from the first a large and distinguished 
patronage. Within six years after its incorporation, a larger building 
was erected with accommodations for one hundred students. This 
was also built by the Messrs. Phillips ; their benefactions to the school 
were constant, and up to the year 1828 their gifts had reached the 
very large sum of ^61,000.00. Other benefactions of upwards of 
$400,000.00 have been received, and I am glad to enumerate among 
them the gift of a dormitory by citizens of the town of Andover, given, 
I hope, in grateful recognition of the distinction the Academy has 
conferred upon the town. 

Beginning as every early American institution has begun, with 
prayerful interest and an humble hope for its success, yet conducted in 
a manner that would make anything else than success impossible, this 
Academy has expanded from a school of fifty-one pupils to its present 
large proportions, to proportions that are limited only by lack of proper 
facilities. In the one hundred and sixteen years of its existence there 
have been registered over twelve thousand students, and among thero 
are names of men eminent in every department of life. From Eliphalet 
Pearson to the present incumbent, the principalship has been held by 

'Dummer Academy, Byfield, was established in 1763 but not incorporated until 1782. 



86 AN1)0VER, MASSACHUSETTS 

men of high scholarship and character, whose lives have illustrated the 
excellence of that learning they were set to teach, and who have worthily 
maintained the high christian standard of profession and practice that 
Samuel Phillips prescribed. Who that recalls the robust manhood and 
mental acumen of Dr. Samuel H. Taylor, can doubt what a benedic- 
tion and inspiration he was to every boy who came under his influence, 
or can say that the school that provides teachers of his manful stature 
is not accomplishing a great work for humanity .'' and recalling how 
many students there are each year in this school who, without means 
or social advantages, work their way to an education, winning high 
distinction with the faculty and the fond love and respect of their 
schoolmates, who shall estimate what the school indirectly is teaching 
of that wholesome democracy that overlooks social distinctions and 
fixes its gaze on merit alone ? 

Fellow citizens, the existence of the Academy among you is 
today your chief honor and glory. I pass as too obvious for comment 
its commercial value to many interests in the town, and viewing it 
only in its human aspect, I will ask you for a moment to reflect what 
parental loves, what glowing aspirations, what rich memories gather 
here ; consider also to how many a former student the mention of 
Andover recalls the fading images of his schoolboy days. There, in 
the dimming vista of the years, is the long street with its ample shade ; 
the hill with its arching elms ; the broad sweep of land and sky ; the 
resplendent sunset ; the campus filled with boys in the full flush of 
youthful exuberance ; and there in the midst of the picture, the radiant 
centre of it all, is the building ablaze with the setting sun ; and 
perhaps as his thoughts take on a deeper hue, he hears the bell once 
more summoning him to his round of duties, and his thoughts go forth 
to some faithful and noble instructor whose words have been a guide 
to him in his activities, and once more perhaps his heart thrills anew 
as he recalls the confidence and love with which he went among his 
friends in the days when there were no concealments, and before the 
competitions and sinuosities of life had chilled his honest boyhood 
zest. Life is blessed in proportion as it is filled with tender memories. 
This is what the Academy means on its human side ; and in this 
aspect Andover, as its home, becomes almost a sacred spot, a place 
dedicated not merely to letters and the arts, but to the unfolding and 
strengthening of the highest human amenities. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 87 

Samuel Phillips did not intend that his work should cease with 
the establishment of the Academy. On a loose leaf in one of the 
earliest drafts of its constitution, there was found in his own hand- 
writing a plan by which a course in theological instruction was to be 
given to the students, and, in accordance with this plan, about twenty 
candidates were instructed for the ministry before the foundation of 
the Seminary. There seems to be no doubt, moreover, that Mr. 
Phillips intended to found a distinct theological school, but his decease 
at the age of fifty prevented the completion of his plans, and the work 
was carried out later by his distinguished relict, Phoebe Foxcroft 
Phillips, and his son John. 

In 1806 it became evident that Harvard College had gone over to 
Unitarianism. This fact filled the Calvinists of New England with 
dismay, and it became imperative that there should be founded at 
once some institution to stem the ever rising tide of radicalism. At 
this same time it happened that there were two distinct schools of 
Calvinists in New England between whom there were some differences 
of opinion, but differences of not an essentially vital character. Dr. 
Spring of Newburyport, as the leader of one school, induced certain 
wealthy merchants in his own congregation to entertain the design of 
founding a theological institution at Newbury, The Trustees of Phil- 
lips Academy who represented the other school, had in 1807 secured 
an act of legislation by which they might receive and hold donations 
for the purpose of a theological institution. In view of the alleged de- 
fection of Harvard College, two seminaries would have weakened the 
whole movement for an improved system of theological study, and, 
accordingly, through the happy mediation and untiring activity of 
Eliphalet Pearson, who resigned his offices of Professor and Fellow at 
Harvard in 1806, a reconciliation was produced between the two 
schools, which resulted finally in a compromise creed and the foun- 
dation of the seminary at Andover. Madame Phillips and her son 
contributed $20,000 to build Phillips Hall and a steward's house. Mr. 
Samuel Abbott of Andover founded a professorship, and for that pur- 
pose donated $110,000, while Messrs. William Bartlett and Moses 
Brown of Newburyport and Johh Norris of Salem contributed in all 
5235,000. The Seminary entered upon its work in October, 1808, 
with thirty-six students. In its eighty-eight years there have been 
donations amounting to upwards of $1,300,000; over three thousand 



88 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

two hundred students have been registered, and of these over two 
hundred have entered the foreign missionary field. 

It is not within mortal power to estimate how wide-reaching and 
how beneficent has been the influence of this school ; it has carried the 
name of Andover to whatever remote field the missionary endeavor has 
extended, while throughout the land it has made Andover and sound 
doctrine, though perhaps not with unvarying unanimity, synonomous 
terms. It has given to the town the distinguished citizenship of such 
men as Dr. Porter, Leonard Woods, Professors Stuart and Phelps, 
while here lived and wrote Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose husband, 
Calvin E. Stowe, was a professor in the Seminary, and through this 
school there has been linked in inseparable union with the name of 
Andover the far shining genius of Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. 
But while congratulating ourselves on the presence among us today, 
as well as in the past, of the distinguished professors connected with 
the Seminary, I am sure I express the uniform sentiment of the 
citizens in assuring you, sir,^ who, in your eighty-eighth year, dignify 
this occasion with your presence, how much we respect and love you 
for the manly and genial qualities you have shown as neighbor, citizen 
and friend, and how profoundly we admire the broad learning and in- 
tellectual force that for an half century have made you an eminent 
teacher and the conspicuous leader of Congregational thought. In 
your late afternoon of life it is not for us to wish you a length of days 
beyond the time when life ceases to be gladsome and agreeable, but 
may your portion be peace and rest, the peace and rest of eventide. 

In 1828 discussion arose about the establishment of a private 
school for girls that should be on the same denominational basis as 
Phillips Academy. Prominent citizens began to agitate the question, 
and soon, as had been the case in all other good works in Andover, a 
person having a residence in the town bequeathed $10,000 toward the 
endowment of a school and $1000 toward the erection of a building. 
An act of incorporation was procured in February, 1829, and in May, 
1829, Abbot Academy opened with seventy students. The generous 
friend of the school was Madam Sarah Abbot, widow of Nehemiah 
Abbot, and though herself without special education, she enjoys the 
distinction of having founded the first school for girls in this section 
of the country. This academy has instructed over four thousand 

* Professor Edwards A. Park. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 89 

Students, and thanks to the energy of its trustees, its prospects were 
never better ; with enlarged buildings and beautified grounds it pre- 
sents in its physical aspects many attractive elements, while as a 
fitting school for college, or as a finishing school, its rank is high and 
its management conservative and successful. Benefactions of con- 
siderable value have been made to the school, and I regret that I may 
not mention by name here one friend of Abbot, whose donations, the 
result of economy and thrift, have been numerous and valuable, and 
to whose well earned leisure, in the decline of life, the care of its 
property and estate affords agreeable recreation, and a purely unselfish 
delight.^ Would that friends of similar measure might spring up to 
all our institutions. But as valuable to Abbot as many legacies, is 
the memory of Miss Phoebe McKeen, so long associated with her 
sister in the management of the school, a memory of sweet intel- 
lectual and spiritual graces that send forth their choice perfume long 
after the flower that gave them forth has faded away. 

One other act of conspicuous benevolence illustrates the educa- 
tional history of Andover. Born in Salem in 1799, Benjamin 
Punchard lived there till 1827, when, with strength impaired and with 
a desire to locate in a healthful community, he selected Andover as 
his home ; by activity and thrift he had at the age of twenty-eight 
acquired considerable property ; on his settlement here he entered 
into a general merchandise business with John Derby, and later marry- 
ing a daughter of Abraham Marland he became a member of the 
Marland Manufacturing Co., and his acquisition of considerable wealth 
was immediate. Dying at the age of fifty-one, he left a bequest of 
^50,000 dollars to found a free high school in Andover ; of this 
amount ;^io,ooo were immediately available for the erection of a 
building, and the balance of ;^40,ooo was to be kept for the mainten- 
ance of the school ; the will further created a reversionary interest in 
^20,000 more, which was to be paid over on the death of his wife. 
The school building was dedicated in 1856, and thus through the 
generosity of one who had adopted the town as his home, Andover 
was provided with a school for the higher education of her children. 
Accurate details of the total wealth of Mr. Punchard are not at hand, 
but his gift to the town may be taken as fully one-third of his estate. 

' Warren F. Draper, the full record of whose gifts to Abbot Academy was announced 
at the graduating exercises June 28, 1896, after this address had been delivered. 



90 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

In 1850 the great fortunes that now make America conspicuous for 
wealth had not come into being, and this fact throws into brighter 
light Mr. Puncbard's benevolence. His gift easily takes rank as the 
largest in amount and most useful in scope that the town has ever 
received. Its obvious results are the general diffusion of a higher 
intelligence among the citizens, and the presence in the community of 
a body of graduates and past members of the school, interested in 
maintaining its dignity and good repute, and cherishing with unvary- 
ing loyalty its fast growing traditions. 

Time fails me to do more than suggest the ceaseless benefactions 
with which the annals of your churches teem, but next to Mr. Pun- 
chard's gift must be named as scarcely less inferior in their public 
utility, that collection of gifts whose object was the foundation at 
once of a public Hbrary and the erection of a perpetual memorial to 
the soldiers. This idea originated in the broad mind of Mr. John 
Smith, who generously donated $33,000 to the purpose, while his 
partners, Messrs. Peter Smith and John Dove, gave $12,000 ; contri- 
butions from other sources amounting to $17,000 more enabled the 
trustees to build the building as it now stands and to equip the 
library. 

And here the narration of munificent deeds must close. Their 
grand total might be computed, and the amount of it would compel 
admiration ; but who shall estimate the results of this benevolence .-* 
Who shall say how much our human nature has been enriched and 
ennobled by this unselfish generosity ? And recalling that it was by 
citizens of Andover that these beneficent enterprises were first under- 
taken, shall we not say of these citizens that they are the true offspring 
and successors of those Puritans who in 1636 set up the college at 
Cambridge, and who in 1647 decreed the existence of schools in the 
various settlements, in order, as they expressed it, that sound learning 
might not be buried in the graves of their forefathers } To com- 
memorate such works as these gives significance to this glad festival ; 
and we celebrate today not merely the land or the mill stream whence 
men for a quarter millenium have drawn an existence, but Andover, 
the home and choice desire of those who have dignified humanity by 
their charity, and who shine in bright light the guardians and pro- 
tectors of the human race. 

Other triumphs of peace have kept an even pace with the achieve- 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 9! 

ments of Andover in education. The manufacturing interests began 
naturally with a saw mill and grist mill ; then to these were added a 
fulling mill and iron mill, industries that the nascent town demanded 
to satisfy its immediate wants and comforts ; in the time of the Revo- 
lution Samuel Phillips turned his manifold energies to the manufacture 
of gunpowder ; and when the war was over, and the spears had been 
beaten into pruning hooks, the same energy that made material for 
war was engaged in the production of paper. Later the powers of 
nature were turned to a broader use, and the names of Marland, 
Abbott, Bradlee, Smith, Sutton, Saunders, Hodges, Davis and Stevens, 
became connected with manufacturing enterprises that have added 
greatly to the wealth and reputation of the town. 

In agriculture too Andover has gained a high place. Interjected 
as the only fertile spot between the sands of the Merrimac and the 
swamps of the Ipswich, her soil presents high possibilities of reward 
for agricultural effort intelligently bestowed, and under it the forest 
that sighed to forest in endless succession, has been cleared away, 
and, spread out to sun and sky, lie hills and intervale that yield due 
products to the farmer, or lend themselves with gracious willingness 
to the adornment of private estates. 

Fellow citizens, the Andover we love and cherish today, the 
Andover whose record we approve, is only the product of the charac- 
ter of those who have been her citizens ; and now on this day, when 
the town comes to give some account of herself to the world, she bids 
me to propose for distinguished honor the names of some of those 
strong men and women who have given lustre and character to every 
page of her history. Here and there have been mentioned in the 
course of this address, the names of some whose relation to the facts 
narrated was so pivotal that their place in local history is secure ; for 
most of them that mention must suffice. But how under this sum- 
mons can I fail to name Simon Bradstreet, a member of the Court of 
Assistants and afterwards Governor of the Province, whose house still 
stands in North Andover ? Anne Bradstreet his wife, the first 
colonial poetess, the prototype of the New England wife and mother ; 
honored in their lives, and destined in the lapse of time to get new 
lustre from Wendell Holmes, Wendell Phillips, Ellery Channing and 
R. H. Dana, their descendants. 

John Osgood, the first representative in the general court, and 



92 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

the progenitor of a distinguished race ; among whom it will suffice 
to name Samuel Osgood, the first postmaster general, and Gayton 
P. Osgood, a scholar and a member of congress, whose houses still 
are standing in the North Parish, and near which the mansion on 
Osgood Hill rears its splendid front as if to reflect the lustre of the 
family name. 

John Stevens, a man of great usefulness in the management 
of town affairs, and the progenitor of a hardy race distinguished 
as manufacturers, mechanics, and engineers, the type of whom is 
best represented by Capt. Nathaniel Stevens, so well remembered 
among the older inhabitants of the town ; and among the eminent 
members of this family must be mentioned Major General Isaac I. 
Stevens, one time Governor of Washington Territory, who met his 
death on the field of Chantilly in September, 1862, while bravely 
leading the charge against the rebel forces. 

George Abbott, the ancestor of a numerous progeny of clergymen 
and of men and women in every vocation of life, who have rendered 
useful services throughout the whole history of the town. 

John Lovejoy, the ancestor of General Nathaniel Lovejoy, a 
distinguished officer in the Revolution. 

Andrew Foster, who in 1685 died at the age of one hundred and 
six years, and who numbers among his descendants, bankers, judges, 
and men skilled in the administration of civic affairs. 

Colonel Moody Bridges, the ardent patriot of the Revolution, 
and a delegate to the Provincial Congress. 

Samuel Bailey, who lost his life at Bunker Hill, and whose de- 
scendant, Sarah Loring Bailey, in her careful and judicious "Historical 
Sketches of Andover," has rendered invaluable service to the town. 

John Johnson, among whose descendants may be named the 
Rev. Samuel Johnson, a writer of hymns of exalted purity, and the 
author of an exhaustive treatise on " Comparative Religions ; " Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, who for thirty consecutive years was the conscien- 
tious town clerk of Andover, and whose services received the gracious 
recognition of his fellow citizens ; William and James Johnson, honor- 
able and prosperous merchants ; Theron Johnson, the founder of the 
Johnson High School ; Osgood Johnson, the fifth principal of Phillips 
Academy. 

Andrew Peters, the founder of a family of the highest respect- 
ability. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY ' 93 

The doctors of the name of Kittredge, who through four gener- 
ations practised medicine and pursued agriculture with like good sense 
and success, and were men of capacity and influence in town, state 
and nation. 

Francis Dane, Thomas Barnard, John Barnard and William 
Symmes, four successive preachers to the First Church, whose 
ministry extended from 1648 to 1807, a period of one hundred and 
fifty-nine years ; they were succeeded in 18 10 by Bailey Loring, who 
served the parish for forty years, and whose honeyed eloquence was 
inherited by his son, George B. Loring, a gracious and forceful orator. 
Simeon Putnam, the eminent preceptor of Franklin Academy ; 
Francis Cogswell, Mark Newman, Samuel Farrar, George Hodges, 
types of trustworthy citizenship. Samuel Merrill, Nathan W. Hazen, 
practitioners at the bar and fine exemplars of the manners of an earlier 
day. Marcus Morton, a judge of the Superior Court, a judge and 
chief justice of the Supreme Court, for thirty-two years in the 
judicial service of the Commonwealth, learned in the law, and emi- 
nently sensible in the application and statement of it. 

Abraham Marland, Peter Smith, John Dove, George L. Davis, 
successful manufacturers, munificent contributors to many useful 
works ; men whose lives illustrate the value of self-help and unweary- 
ing industry ; and as most eminent in this class I speak with reverent 
regard the name of John Smith, the record of whose life, character 
and manifold benevolences might well have taken the whole time of 
this address. 

But I should be recreant to my trust were I not to name for 
especial honor here the Phillips family, that in every generation has 
conferred distinction upon the town. In the year 171 1, Samuel Phil- 
lips, the first minister of this church, entered upon a pastorate that was 
not to close until 1771 ; a gentleman by birth and nature, a scholar, 
a man of profound piety, and of serious and solid character ; in the 
second generation, his sons Samuel, John and William, became the 
founders of the Academy, and were men of enterprise, patriotic and 
devoted to every good work ; and John Phillips further illustrated the 
family habit of philanthropy by founding and endowing, in 1783, the 
academy at Exeter : in the third generation, Samuel, son of Samuel, 
conceived the idea of that academy which his father and uncles 
founded, and was a man of business sagacity and of manifold 



94 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

commercial enterprises, a judge, a state senator and the Lieutenant 
Governor of the Commonwealth : in the fourth generation, John, the 
son of Samuel, with his mother, Phoebe Foxcroft Phillips, was of those 
who founded the Theological Seminary ; in the fifth generation, the 
reputation of the family for piety and philanthropy was worthily main- 
tained by those excellent ladies whose names were household words to 
every citizen of the North Parish : in the sixth generation, the glory 
of the race was concentrated in Phillips Brooks, the Bishop of 
Massachusetts. He was the apostle and advocate of human excel- 
lence, and his election to the head of the diocese crowned with the 
meed of eminent merit a life devoted to the spiritual welfare of 
mankind. 

In manhood clad outshining far the guise, 

Mitre, and crook and gilt-enfigured gown, 

Wherewith Rome loves to load her prelates down, 

And cincture them with pomp, — thou, humbly wise, 

Assums't thy sacred charge ; nor dost devise 

A labored liturgy, nor has a frown 

For those who covet not the martyr's crown, 

Nor those who e'en religion's sway despise. 

The good, the true to love, and e'er in man 

To stablish what is best, and him to raise 

Up to the hight of Christ's and nature's plan 

Thy fervent theme; and 'tis thy highest praise 

That conscious pure stands ever in the van 

Of all thy thoughts and creeds and forms outweighs. 

No words of mine can add to the reverence you hold for his 
exalted character ; but recalling the fervor of his address at the dedi- 
cation of Memorial Hall, with the fine ancestral spirit full upon him, 
I must ask what would not have been his eloquence, could he have 
stood here in his proper place today to celebrate the foundation of 
that Andover his ancestors had made of resplendent fame .'' 

Be these of the prime in honor and in worth, but far be it from 
me here to forget that collective citizen virtue that has done its duty 
in the fields or mills, and that has given solidity and strength to the 
fabric that has here been reared ; and who that has known those 
whose lives were love, patience, self-denial and fidelity to every duty, 
shall doubt that the moral beauty of that fabric is directly traceable to 
the influence of the mothers of Andover } 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 95 

Such, fellow citizens, in partial outline is Andover, and out of the 
manifold delights of this hour, there rises to the vision, not a vener- 
able matron virhose life is in the past, but a mother of maturing beauty, 
confident of the future, regnant, imperial. In classic dignity, in the 
repose of conscious worth, she sits upon her hill top, and as the 
generations of her children and her students come to do her honor, 
she rises up to meet them, and, pointing with becoming pride to the 
band of men and women who surround her seat, she says : " These are 
they of puritan mould, who felled my forests ; who fought my ene- 
mies ; who founded my schools ; who gained my independence ; who 
have made my name one with the blessed name of Freedom. What- 
ever of sovereignity I have, I owe to them. If you would have nie 
to abide with you, the bright flower of that puritan development from 
which I had my origin, cultivate their virtues and their character, and 
my reign among you will be secure." 



96 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



THE POEM 



BY ANNIE SAWYER DOWNS 

To-day, the Hampshire fields are sweet with blossoms of the May ; 

To-day, in ancient Hampshire woods, the deer and rabbit play ; 

While Hampshire meads are smooth and rich, and shine with emerald gleam, 

And haunted forests whisper low to each historic stream. 

But towns and cities old and gray are Hampshire's pride and boast, 

And that o'er all her grassy plains, the track of Roman host 

Still leads to villa, and to camp, and to the Druid grove. 

Whose mystic stones were altars hoar, ere Bacchus was, or Jove ; 

Who silent saw the rise of Rome, and silent saw her fall. 

And made no sign when axe of Dane crashed down the minster wall, 

Or smote with all his savage horde, on shrine and chapel rare, 

And drowned with ribald jest and oath the monkman's dying prayer. 

The Druid stone, the Roman camp, the Norman abbey vast. 

The good king's church, the wise king's school, all tell of Hampshire's past. 

And of the proud and noble fame which through the years comes down 

To flush the cheek, and thrill the hearts throughout our ancient town, 

For our own Andover so old, and yet so young to-day, 

Who ever to the mother land will loving homage pay. 

To an old borough on the Ande is namesake, mental heir. 

Which Saxon men called Andover in English Hampshire fair. 

O, mother land, O, mother town, how oft thy shaded street 

Has heard at dawn the bugle call, and then the trampling feet 

Of men at arms, who for their king shrank not from toil or pain, 

And for their right in church or state accounted death but gain. 

Who in the cell, and on the block, by faggot, and by rack. 

Laid straight a way through coming years for freedom's shining track. 

O, mother land, O, mother town, when dark days on you fell. 

And those you set in places high, for gold and gauds dared sell, 

The freeman's right to name his faith, the freeman's right to pray, 

To seek his God with hymn or psalm as seemed to him God's way. 

The freeman's right to judge the Word, to teach his simple child 

That secret true of holy life is Gospel undefiled ; 

And that to follow leaders blind is weak and wicked thing. 

For of the soul not prince, nor priest, but God alone is king. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY " gj 

Then through thy quiet rural ways, O, lovely mother land, 
And in thine ancient city streets, and on the North sea strand 
Was heard a sound like wind at night among the leafy trees, 
Or ceaseless break on sandy shores of never silent seas ; 
And which in great waves rolled along to break at last in song. 

" We go, we go, across the wave, 

As Israel went of old. 
To seek a home and find a grave, 

In strange and distant fold. 
We go, we go, the world is wide, 

But love is ever near, 
Our fathers' God is at our side ; 

And true hearts know not fear. 

" Across the sea, across the sea. 

Are valleys fair and lone. 
And forests rich, and wild, and free, 

Which yet may be our own, 
And where, unvexed by bishop's rule, 

Or envious tyrant's hate. 
We with God's help, in wisdom's school, 

May rear a noble state. 

" Where truth shall be the rule of life, 

And faith have steadfast sway, 
And not for gold or fame the strife. 

But clear to see God's way. 
Where loosed from old and craven fears. 

Men see who once were blind. 
That only thus through future years, 

May souls sure freedom find. 

" Farewell, farewell, we may not wait, 

Our ships are in the bay, 
And though to-night the tide is late. 

Before the dawn of day. 
We shall far off on shifting wave. 

Watch line of fading shore. 
The fairest shore God ever gave, 

But home for us no more. 
No more, no more, dear fading shore. 

Our home, O, never more." 



gS ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Their vo)-age was long on wintry- seas, 
Tossed by the strange and baffling breeze, 
And summer sun was warm and high, 
Before their eyes saw coast line nigh. 

That coast line was our Salem bay. 
Glad then as now with light waves' play, 
Fair then as now with rose and fern ; 
But thickly set with forests stem, 

WTiich all untrod pressed dark and grim, 
Close to the white sand"s curv'ing rim ; 
As they would hide from \-ision rude, 
The haunts of virgin solitude. 

And from whose depths as twilight fell, 
Rose clear above the ocean's swell, 
The owl's wild call, the wolf's dread roar, 
And stealthy steps unheard before. 

Which made young children closer creep. 
And sobbing wake from restless sleep ; 
^^'hile women knelt, their faces white. 
Shrinking in fear from morning light 

But with the mom, the mom of June, 
Their hope sprang gay to wUd bird's tune, 
And proudly rang their h)Tnn of praise. 
Throughout the forest's leafy ways. 



Then glad they sought the sheltered vales, 
\Mience still were seen the harbor sails : 
And where before the summer fled. 
The log house had its thatch o'er head. 

^^'hat matter then that winter cold 
Trod hard on autumn's garb of gold ? 
Or that the hearth stone, rough and low, 
Was hidden deep in drifted snow ? 

For safe within were child and wife, 
And soul not with itself at strife, 
AMiile will, and choice, and doctrine high. 
Were free as earth and air and sky. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 99 

They sought our woods, they loved our hills, 
They hunted by our bubbling rills, 
And one spring morn new township found 
By yonder grass grown burying ground. 

And soon by brook and river side. 
Their rude homes scattered far and wide ; 
While fairer than their shelters small, 
Rose house of worship over all. 

Where freely hymn and psalm rose high. 
As God to humblest soul drew nigh ; 
Where right was might, and will was fate, 
For God was Lord of Church and State. 

Strong were their hands and stern their will, 
As with hard toil and patient skill. 
They wrested harvests from the plain 
And cleared the wood for waving grain. 



The secrets of those early years. 
The griefs, the pains, the hopes, the fears, 
Are gone with children's faces sweet 
Or fleeing red men's hurrying feet. 

We faintly trace their farm lands' bound, 
Their cellars' green and sunken round ; 
Their meeting house upon the hill. 
The stones of their first water mill. 

Seek records of their parish wide 
Who first was groom, and who the bride ; 
Whose child first sat on Parson's knee, 
Who first paid hated tithing fee. 

Yet seek in vain ; but one dim page 
Is wafted to us from their age ; 
But one faint name on tombstone gray 
Reveals their brief and bitter day. 

We only know that firm and deep. 
They tilled where we the harvest reap. 
We only know the seal they set 
Stamps all our best and noblest yet. 



lOO ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

But Still our loving fancy turns, 
To many an ancient road, 

Where aged houses lowly bend, 
Beneath the centuries' load. 



One ■\\4th long line of sloping roof, 

Where shadows come and go ; 
And close about whose door stone gray, 

The early wild flowers blow. 

Is shrine for poet, and for saint, 

Where pilgrims never cease ; 
For grave Anne Bradstreet loved this haunt, 

This haunt of ancient peace. 

First poet of our Essex vale, 

First woman in the land 
To sing how sweet our meadows wide, 

How fair our river strand, 

And that the red man fierce and wild, 

Was yet a child of God, 
Who through uncounted years had been 

Sole master of the sod. 

O, grave Anne Bradstreet, saintly soul, 

Your fame was early won, 
Yet you loved best the mother's name, 

The wifely work well done ; 

And long years after you had found 

Rest in your unknowTi grave, 
A half forgotten deed of love, 

Remembered, was, to save 

Your child first born, your son, best lovec^ 
From worse than deadly doom, 

Which smiting men and maids alike, 
Wrapt all the town in gloom. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 

The infant town where winter snow, laid chill 
Upon the plain, and where the noisy, rude 

March winds, swept from the far off barren hill 
To ravage field and wood. 

The wretched town which roused from sleep, 

That morning of long ago, 
By oaths, and yells, and crackling fire, 

And hurrying through the snow ; 
Of wives and children shrieking wild, 

Shivering and ghastly white. 
In after years would never tell, 

The horrors of that fight ; 

But told instead, how oft in age, 

They saw the blood red sky ; 
And in their dreams heard wounded groan, 

And tortured women cry 
For help, to bear the cruel pain. 

Or swift release of death, 
While louder grew the dreadful din 

Above their laboring breath. 

The Indian horde swept through the town. 

The house of God defiled. 
And killed before the mother's eyes 

Her new born helpless child. 
They burned the harvest in the bam. 

The cattle in the stall. 
And dreadful as the curse of hell 

Was their mad fiendish call. 



And Parson Barnard, hid behind 

His book shelves old and tall. 
Heard painted leader orders give 

Where next their blows should fall. 
Then quick they burned the parish book, 

And by their torches' shine 
He saw how like the beasts they fought 

For the communion wine. 



I02 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

The Parson, without doubt, was saint, 

But hotly rose his ire 
As off they rushed to set at once 

The Bradstreet house on fire. 
He moved, he rose, but sank again, 

Scared by a dreadful shout, 
"The half fed wolves have found," he said, 

" Some long sought plunder out." 

He careful crept on hands and knees 

And looked through crack in door. 
As Dudley Bradstreet with his wife 

And children weeping sore 
Was hurried long the Haverhill road 

By all the yelling band. 
With kicks and blows and curses loud 

And bloody knives in hand. 

No backward look they dared to cast ; 

Their half clad stumbling feet 
Could hardly keep o'er frozen snow 

Pace set for swift retreat. 
As Parson watched them grieving loud, 

The bitter north wind died. 
And slowly faded fire and smoke 

From off the countr)- side. 

For that the Parson thanked the Lord, 

And as he thanked he heard 
What in the midst of that wild scene 

His inmost spirit stirred, 
A shout, it almost seemed of glee. 

From just this side of wood ; 
Where in a circle and unbound 

The waiting captives stood. 

Stopped short by daubed and painted chief 

Not seen by them before, 
Who cut the cords which held them tight 

And at the leader swore. 
Then turned to Bradstreet, Colonel called, 

'* You do not know my face. 
Do not remember years ago 

When hunted in disgrace ; 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY IO3 

" An Indian boy crept to your home, 

And by your mother seen, 
Was warmed and fed, and all day hid 

Behind the fireplace screen. 
Was sheltered through the winter long. 

And when pursuit was o'er 
Was safely sent with escort strong 

To Saco's distant shore. 

" No harm shall touch your mother's child, 

No man of Indian race 
Shall lift a hand against the home 

She made my hiding place. 
Now homeward turn and tell her kin 

One red man was not base 
But loosed your bonds and spared your life 

For her sweet act of grace." 

Next Sabbath, when the Parson prayed. 

He tlianked the Lord for those 
Who while on earth fed, warmed, and clothed 

And even loved their foes. 
And then he told this gentle tale, 

Which like a flower comes down 
To light the darkness of the gloom 

Which wrapped the infant town. 



The Parson might have told as well, how few 

Short years ago ; the Bradstreet house for two 

Long months, was dark, and closed to all, how cries 

Rose loud against the name, and how the sighs 

Of men in pain, and women tortured sore 

Were laid straightway at Dudley Bradstreet's door. 

How with his wife he fled by night, and close 

Was hid, until, again men's reason rose ; 

Till prisoners were from jail released, 

And o'er the land the witchcraft frenzy ceased. 

Hardly is there a record left to guide 

Us in our quest ; but still on one brook side 

We trace the lane by which the sheriff went. 

When he in haste for wretched witch wa.s sent. 



104 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

And proud to-day should be our town to call 

That witch's name ; for only she, of all 

Who pined and stan'ed in Salem jail denied. 

With lifted head, and fierce and stubborn pride, 

That she herself a witch wife was, or could 

Another make, or that so long as God was good, 

Witch there could ever be. They hanged her then 

And hid her bones in wild wolf's den. 

But we upon our records high, wTite Martha Carrier's name, 

And give the story of her fate a wide and deathless fame. 



The end of first half centurj- found the town 
Both rich and strong. Tho' fathers had lain down 
The burden and the care, and slept in peace, 
The mills and shops of sons showed great increase. 
The humble school at "parting of the ways " 
Had its own building new. In darkest days 
They glad to Harvard gave; and freely sent 
Their men and arms, and slender substance lent, 
When rumors that the east by war was stirred ; 
Or when the exiles' tales of woe were heard. 



The old first parish wide was rift in twain 

And South the new was called. Then bare and plain 

Rose second meeting house, and Phillips wise, 

First of the long and noble line, was named 

Their pastor and their guide. Unblamed 

He walked among them sixty years, and o'er 

Their lives shed counsel clear, and ever more 

Urged noblest deed and spirit high : so when 

Were wanted sore, brave prompt and fearless men. 

The old town lacked them not. Stem too was he. 

Nor ever lightly looked at sin to see 

If there excuse might be. To know the truth, 

To do hard things, he taught the eager youth, 

So when the dark days came no single man 

Of Parson Phillips' flock, but quick began 

His life to plan so that when called on high 

He need not fear to meet his Parson's eye. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 

Yet life was life in those old days, and like our own 
Was sad, or joyed in love's light o'er it thrown ; 
While peace and shelter sweet of home, were thought 
The dearest things, if not by honor bought. 
Clear was it always understood the state 
Was first, and though men might their ease abate, 
The soldiers in the field must be supplied. 
Needs of their wives and children satisfied, 
And while as freemen sure, the action bold 
Of those they chose to rule, might be controlled 
By censure sharp ; they firmly held the ground 
In their defense when others on them frowned. 
They dreaded Papists like the death, yet found 
Houses and farms, and chance to till the ground, 
For guiltless ones who from Arcadian shores 
By stress of war were driven to their doors. 
And still on lovely western slope, a field 
Is shown, that once of flax a wondrous yield 
Produced under their skilful hands. When they, 
Back to their homes were sent, sad was the day 
And mournful their farewell. They left to show 
Their love a carven powder horn, and bow. 
And snatches gay of song and dance 
And stories strange of distant sunny France. 



lOS 




I Io6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Then men still richer grew, while women fair 
Began, as women should, to have their share 
Of ease ; no longer was there fear of raid 
By Indians wild ; no longer was the maid 
Forced to hard toil in field, but at the side 
Of cheerful fire, spun, wove, and told with glee 
Light laughing tales of maiden's trickery. 
Still heritage of freedom was not won. 
A question grave, pressed hard, they could not shun ; 
The mother land was dear, should they permit 
Her rule when wrong ? Should they to tax submit, 
Which wisest men of her own realm had said 
Would not be paid where freedom was not dead ? 
No, by high heaven ! The sea might o'er them roll, 
The land they loved grow up again to wood. 
Ere single penny of their gold should 
Be unjustly wrung. All would they do and 
More, if as was right by law of mother land 
Son of their soil had seat, and voice in band 
Which statutes made. Until that right was theirs, 
Yield they would not to orders nor to prayers. 
The mother's blood was like the child's, so talk 
Ran high ; and over seas an army came 
To cities hold, and sear the land with flame. 
Quick sprang our town to arms, and on the first 
Great day, the April day, when war cloud burst 
At Lexington, and crimsoned Concord's plain 
With blood, left loom, and plough, and tender grain 
To reach the front. They did their share that day ; 
And proved once more no price too high to pay 
For freemen's rights. No need to tell how drum 
And fife broke stillness of the vale, how hum 
Of angry words, by night and day, grew loud ; 
And everywhere from farm and shop, the crowd 
Flocked to the aged church in hopes to hear 
Where next a blow would fall ; perhaps how near. 
Then marshalled quick the minute men who gazed 
Toward Boston Bay, where hated war ships lay. 
And each night e'er the sun went down, cried loud, 
" To-morrow morn the word may come : ' Quick, crowd 
You to the fight ; ' and so God speed the night." 
Then at their arms they waiting stood, through spring days long and bright, 
To hear at last 'neath summer skies, the summons to the fight. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I07 

The grass was green upon the lawn 

The corn waved dark and tall. 
And all day long the oriole, 

Whistled his silvery call. 
But what the veil, the film, the cloud 

That frights the air of June ? 
And what the hush, the dread, the fear. 

To which hearts beat in tune ? 

And why do men set faces hard 

And eyes of women fill ? 
While trembling age and eager youth, 

Press to the distant hill ? 
No courier swift swept through the street 

With beat of martial drum. 
And none could tell how the dread news 

To Andover town had come. 

Only that e'er the cannon's roar. 

Turned every heart's blood chill, 
The voice was heard, " Stand fast ! They fight 

To-day at Bunker Hill." 
Dark rolled the smoke, when on the breeze 

Was borne a deaf'ning shout 
"We 've beat the red coats off the field, 

We hold the frail redoubt ! " 

Then there was mounting in hot haste 

And hurrying to and fro. 
For Doctor, Nurse, and Parson French 

Swift to the field must go. 
More weary hours wore slow away, 

Again the mighty sound, 
" A second time the red coats flee, 

Once more they leave the ground." 

O maids and wives, and mothers dear, 

Whose sad eyes watched the fire, 
God grant though on that summer day 

You lost your hearts' desire. 
That steadfast pride and courage high 

Were yours through earthly ill. 
For a great state was born that day. 

That day at Bunker Hill ! 



Io8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Loud and still louder roared the guns, 

Thick smoke hid all the sky, 
And still the silverj' oriole 

Sang in the chestnut high. 
At last the word, " Our powder gone, 

We've turned us down the hill, 
Content to prove this summer day. 

This day at Bunker Hill ! 

That farmer lads can shake a crown 

And lay proud England low, 
And on a field they have not tilled 

Such fearful harvest sow!" 
Shot fell like rain on Charlestown Neck, 

And brave the deeds oft told, 
Of Bailey, Farnum, Frj-e, and Poor, 

And stout John Barker bold. 

For he was private in the ranks. 

But last in the retreat ; 
When Captain Farnum struck by shell, 

Fell just across his feet, 
He lifted and he held him high 

Full in the redcoats' view 
And shouted loud, " Now hold on Ben, 

The Reg'lars sha' n't have you ! " 

A hundred years have come and gone. 

And still in stirring verse. 
The children of North Andover 

John Barker's deed rehearse. 
And in the old-fashioned burying ground. 

Shady and green and still, 
On a mossy stone you oft may read, 

" He fought at Bunker Hill." 

He fought the fight, he kept the step. 

Loyal, and brave, and true, 
For a free land he paid the price 

Comrades, that day for you. 
So lowly kneel, and softly tread, 

In the graveyard under the hill 
Fame writes aloft no prouder line. 

Than, " Fought at Bunker Hill." 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I09 

But not on battle fields alone 
Our fathers' noble deeds have shone, 
For when grim war was at their door 
They calmly turned to lettered lore 



And planted deep on hill top green, 
Wide o'er the country to be seen ; 
Not fortress stern from whence to rule. 
But firm, enduring Christian school. 

First in the land where learning old. 
Disclosed to all its wealth of gold, 
Where side by side, the rich and great 
Sat low with men of mean estate. 

And nobler still, the first in land, 
To write on high that God's command 
Was far above all classic lore, 
Or poets from Castalian shore. 

O noble soul of Phillips name. 
To-day the whole world owns thy fame. 
While Phillips School is loved and blest ; 
Where'er men roam in east or west. 

School, which for hundred years and more, 
Has opened wide and generous door 
To truth, when she was known by few, 
To learning old, and science new. 

Whose walls have rung with echo loud. 
Great names of which the world is proud. 
Dear names, which whether far or near. 
Bring songs of love, and hope, and cheer. 

So twine once more the ivy green. 
And once more wreathe the bay leaves sheen ; 
That town must never blush for shame, 
Which guardian is of Phillips fame. 



no ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

And as the years have come and gone, 
Round Phillips School, so early bom, 
Religion grave has made her seat, 
And school for maidens, fair and sweet, 

Has risen at the foot of hill ; 

Fruit of the loving, generous will. 

Of one who to the Phillips kin 

In her low grave long years has been. 

O, trio, blest, and good, and wise ! 

Pride in your fair fame never dies. 

For of your life the noblest part 

Springs deep from out the old town's heart. 



And not alone these buildings high. 

Ring with great names and reach the sky ; 

We see grand faces in the street, 

By stream and grove their clear eyes meet. 

Here rode the Father of his land. 
And gracious waved his courtly hand; 

Here to the plaudits of the crowd. 
The gallant Frenchman lowly bowed. 

And parsons with their gowns and bands, 
And hour glass quaint to tell the sands, 
And women of heroic make, 
Who risked their all for love's sweet sake. 

But why their titles now rehearse? 
Why praise their deeds in trembling verse ? 
The seed they sowed has flowered in worth. 
And "'added beauty to the earth." 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 1 

Then once again, as long ago, when life with love 

was all aglow, 
When men dwelt quiet at their ease. 
And wealth was borne on every breeze, 
Was heard a warning voice, " Not yet is freedom won ; 
And ne'er will be, while in this land, a single son 
Of mine is called a slave, is bought and sold, and made 
To work in fields and woods, and in rice swamps, unpaid ; 
Black he may be, or white, unknown, unlearned, or poor, 
But while in bondage one is held, your freedom is not sure. 
You have grown rich upon his toil ; you softly live, 
While he is starved and cold. You must arise and give 
Such freedom as is yours ; must break his heavy chains 
Though at the cost of death, and prisoners' lonely pains. 

"Then raise once more, O sons of mine. 

My flag of heavenly blue ; 
Draw once again my shining blade. 

And hold it high in view. 
Then close your ranks, and waiting stand 
Till loud I call throughout the land." 

They waited through the April days, 

When tidings swiftly flew 
That erring brothers in their rage 

Had fired on flag of blue. 
Had lifted sacrilegious hands 
And laid it low on Charleston sands. 

Then freedom from her starry heights. 

Called loud the roll of fame. 
And swift as arrow from the bow. 

Came answer to the same. 
Turn, comrades, turn, the old leaves o'er, 
And read the lofty names once more. 

But read them low on bended knee, 

And humble tribute pay, 
They were the noblest in our town, 

Who heard the call that day. 
And who once more to deadly strife 
Bore high the names which shaped our life. 



H2 AXDOVER, MA.SSACHUSETTS 

No deed of theirs has ever shamed. 
Our proud and ancient town ; 

Their courage and their zeal, we count 
The jewels in her crown. 

And write their names on record high. 

And ne'er will let their memory' die. 

TTiat roll of fame I careful scan, 
For name above the rest. 

For some more shining word or deed. 
To be by pen confest 

But vainly scan, for every deed. 

Asks of our praise the highest meed. 

Yet stay, there is a simple boy, 

Younger than those I see : 
WTio often from our library wall, 

Turns serious ej-es to me, 
Not braver he than comrades true, 

.\nd not so strong or wise, 
.\nd who my words would hear to-day 

Wixh scarcely pleased surprise. 

Who would, perhaps, have said aloud, 

" Our Captain was our pride, 
And my messmate the bravest man 

Who for the old flag died, 
\Miile as for me, I loved my town. 

And heard my countr}- call. 
But in the camp and on the field. 

Was boy amongst them aU." 

But just because he was a boy, 

Like those before me now, 
The brighter shines his hurried life, 

The aureole on his brow. 
"You are too young," the elders cried. 

Yet, when fresh summons came, 
Again upon the crowded list. 

Was Walter Raymond's name. 



a 50TH ANNIVERSARY H3 

Lone was the home he left behind, 

But quick from field and tent, 
Came boyish letters, brief and plain, 

Begging that food be sent ; 
And like a boy bewailing oft, 

How slow and small his pay, 
And how for papers and for books 

He looked in vain each day. 

" And how were all within the house ? 

How bloomed his mother's flowers ? " 
Ah, friends ! you think them trifles small, 

But then the boy was ours. 
More serious soon the letters grew, 

And simple as a child. 
He told how when 'twas time to fight, 

He knelt in thicket wild. 

And asked his God to help him stand 

Firm in his ordered place ; 
And that he might not be afraid 

To meet his foeman's face. 
Low over to himself he said 

The collect for the day, 
And knew the Lord was by his side. 

Through all the fearful fray. 

The summer brief was almost gone, 

When in one twilight sweet, 
A passing friend laid lightly down, 

Across his mother's feet, 
A letter, faded, crumpled, old. 

Which told how days before, 
Her boy upon a rapid raid 

Along the river shore, 

Had captured been by rebel horde, 

And driven swift away ; 
But to what city, or what town. 

No man of them could say. 
No more than this, except that he 

Called loud to those behind ; 
To turn them sharp, and save the trap. 

To which he had been blind. 



114 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

It was a brave and generous thing 

To do that fatal day, 
" But then you know," they only said, 

"That it was Walter's way." 
Then darkness like the blackest night, 

And silence like the tomb, 
Hid from their straining, aching hearts, 

The knowledge of his doom. 
And that the tale was common then. 

More bitter made the grief, 
More keen the anguish of the home, 

Where hope gave no relief. 

'Twas autumn first, and winter then. 

But when the tardy spring. 
Was sweet with leaves, and buds, and flowers, 

And songs the wild birds sing ; 
They heard, how in a prison pen, 

111, cold, and starved beside ; 
While bells rang loud for Christmas Day 

That brave young boy had died. 

And heard as well, how urged to sell 

His honor, and be free. 
He answered with uplifted head, 

"The dead cart first for me." 
How begged to steal from scanty store. 

Of feebler men than he, 
The answer still had been the same, 

"That will not do for me, 
They do not teach, you see, their boys 

That way in my old town ; 
Just tell my father how I died;" 

And smiling laid him down. 
Our Christmas bells o'er fields of snow, 

He needed not to hear, 
For loud rang out the bells of Heaven 

As that pure soul drew near. 

And boys, with clear eyes like his own. 

Who bear his name to-day. 
Who proudly march beneath the flag, 

Which o'er his soul had sway. 
Remember through all coming years ; 

Whatever storms betide. 
How grandly for that starry flag, 

Young Walter Raymond died. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 115 



THE BANQUET 



Prof. Churchill, in welcoming the company at the begin- 
ning of the banquet, said : 

Fellow Citizens : Let us congratulate ourselves that we are 
assembled in such goodly numbers on this day of brightness and 
beauty, to celebrate the quarter-millenial birthday of our dear old 
town. It is my pleasant duty and privilege to welcome, in your name, 
the invited guests of the day, — our distinguished chief magistrate 
and members of his staff who accompany him, our representa- 
tive in the national halls of Congress, the sons and daughters of 
Andover who come back to the old home as on some glad Thanks- 
giving festival, and other respected guests whom we have invited to 
share with us in the congratulations and the hopes of the hour ; one 
and all we bid you thrice welcome. Happy are we in the day itself, 
the "bridal of earth and sky;" it is a day for the Doxology. I think 
we cannot better express the sentiment of our common heart than by 
uniting hearts and voices in that glorious old Doxology which our 
fathers sung; after which the Rev. Frank R. Shipman, pastor of the 
Old South Church, chaplain of the day, will invoke the divine presence 
and blessing. 

The Doxology was then sung by the audience, led by the 
band ; and grace was said by Chaplain Shipman. 

After the banquet was finished, at 3.10 o'clock, Prof. 
Churchill rose and opened the speaking as follows : 

Commemoration days like this, my fellow citizens, are to be cher- 
ished as the blossoms of century plants, so rare are they, so fragrant 
with the aroma of the past, so full of suggestive interest. The anni- 
versary itself carries its own enjoyment. What lineal son of our 
worthy sires is not quickened to his heart's depths as he thinks of 
kindred and ancestry } What citizen of Andover is not thrilled with 
pardonable pride as he realizes through the scenes and the events of 
the day his vital connection with the dangers and achievements of the 
days of long ago ? 



Il6 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Time, in his advance of two centuries and a half, has cast behind 
him a deep shadow, covering many a name, many a scene, many an 
event, inseparably intermingled with the fortunes of the present and 
the hopes of the future. With Old Mortality, the wandering religious 
enthusiast of Scottish romance, we consider that we " are fulfilling a 
sacred duty while renewing to the eye of posterity the zeal and the 
sufferings of our forefathers." In this spirit of veneration for a brave 
and godly ancestry, we said to the orator of the day : " Take the anti- 
quarian's torch, penetrate the dark corners, search out the hidden 
things of our histor}% sweep the dust from honored names, tear away 
the moss from their deeds, retrace the fading lines, that we may have 
a distincter knowledge and a deeper appreciation of the beginnings 
of our goodly heritage." Most splendidly has he accomplished his 
noble task. Gratefully do we recognize the patient care and the 
consummate skill with which he has performed this pious duty to the 
past. We summoned the poet of the day, and bade her "with garland 
and with singing robes about her," to stir and touch our hearts with 
the romance that lies along the pathway of the centuries. Most 
impressively has she appealed to our hearts and imaginations, as she 
has sung to us of the saintly Ann Bradstreet, of the dauntless Martha 
Carrier, of the brave John Barker, and told how young Walter 
Raymond died. 

And now, with the solemnities completed, we linger a little while 
around the family table, to engage in the interchange of thought and 
sentiment ; and in friendly talk catch glimpses of some of those side- 
lights which illumine the significance of our life and history as a good 
old New England town. 

Instinctively, we all think first of our beloved Com- 
monwealth ; and we gladly salute him who so honorably 
represents her as the executive head of the great State of 
which Andover is a component part. Let our first senti- 
ment, then, be Tlie Commonwealth of Jfcissac/utsetts. 

It is with peculiar pride and pleasure that I present 
His Honor, Lieut. Gov. Roger Wolcott, Acting Governor of 
the State of Massachusetts. 

ACTING GOVERNOR ROGER WOLCOTT 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of the historic town of 
Andover : I should be tempted to begin the informal words that I 



250TH ANNIVERSARY II7 

shall speak to you to-day with a word of congratulation upon the 
peculiar splendor of this beautiful spring day, if it were not that I 
have thought that I detected at the lips of your reception committee, 
when I referred to that impressive subject of the weather, a sort of 
suggestion that it was no cause of peculiar congratulation to the people 
of Andover, because a day like this was nothing more than their just 
due. 

It has been my privilege to attend many occasions of this com- 
memorative nature ; some of them marking, as this does, the close of a 
period in the history of a municipality, others commemorating the 
recurrence of the death of some noted individual or of the happening 
of some noted event ; and I have always found such occasions to pos- 
sess a peculiar interest to any son of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. I believe that it is a holy and a pious duty to bring back to 
the minds of the young the fresh memory of these great events of the 
past. I believe that it does good to any son or daughter of the good 
old stock of New England to teach him anew the lesson of the suffer- 
ing and the endurance and the heroism of the men and women that 
have laid the foundation of this Commonwealth. I believe that to the 
mind of the son of the newest immigrant upon our shores, the latest 
arrival, who has come here loyally to cast in his lot with ours, that it 
is good for him to learn that he is throwing in his history and his 
contribution into the vast story of a great and a noble past. 

It is true, and it is the pride of the Commonwealth that it is true, 
that many features of these local histories are similar. They all tell 
the story of the life of a municipality from its humble beginning when 
there was suffering and endurance, when there were no great differ- 
ences of wealth or position, although the parson and the squire always 
received the acknowledgment of their recognized position, but there 
were no extremes of great wealth or of squalid poverty. The story 
goes on through the long struggle with nature and the final fight with 
the Indians, and then it carries the story of the town or the city through 
the splendid period of the Revolution, and it brings it along through 
all the rapid development of this century, until we come down to that 
last bugle blast in defence of nationality and to wipe out the curse of 
slavery, and then, thank God, the story of that period of all the towns 
and all the cities of the Commonwealth, my friends, is very much the 
same. It is honorable to them all. 



Il8 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

And yet, there are here and there these local differences that pre- 
vent the story from being monotonous. You take one group of towns 
skirting the Cape and running up to the rocky peak of Cape Ann, and 
you find that all down through their story there is the smell of salt 
water. You take another group of towns, and they crown our hills 
across the centre of the Commonwealth, until we come to the forests 
of Berkshire, and there you find the story of slow growth, in some 
cases, I regret to say, of a diminishing population ; and yet, there you 
know that from those hard and barren farms there come the brave 
young men and the virtuous girls that come down to our cities and 
make the very best element in our urban population. 

Then you take the great cities that have grown up, because they 
have made their contribution to the wonderful industrial progress of 
the time, and you know that they are contributing to cheapen the 
products of man's labor and to make what are the luxuries of one gen- 
eration the necessities and the common possession of the next. And 
then there is the final group to which the town of Andover belongs ; 
Cambridge, with Harvard College ; Somerville, with Tufts ; Amherst ; 
way off in the corner of the State, Williams College, honored and 
beloved ; and then the towns that are famous because they have made 
academies that have made a name and a fame for themselves. And 
then in this presence how shall I speak upon Andover, with its old 
seat upon a hill, with its long story of public service of individuals and 
of families, with its high standard of learning and of poetry, its influ- 
ence stretching far beyond the limits of this Commonwealth, the torch 
lighted at its sacred altar borne beyond the boundaries of our State 
and carrying its gleam and its light well nigh around the world. Your 
orator to-day, in felicitous and eloquent words, has told the remarkable 
story of these two hundred and fifty years. The Commonwealth recog- 
nizes its debt to the town of Andover. It owes to it a part of its fame, 
and yet I need not remind you that the town of Andover owes much 
to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The summons of the State 
and of the nation in the late war was heard more willingly by the men 
of Andover, because it was brought here wafted on a breeze that had 
touched the summit of Bunker Hill, that had swept across Concord 
and Lexington, yes, that had brought a part of its influence and its 
inspiration from Plymouth Rock. And so it is true, also, that the 
men who during the last century nearly have honorably taught the 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I19 

young the best learning on yonder hill, learned and conscientious, 
devoted as these teachers may have been and were, their task was 
made somewhat easier to them because the atmosphere in which 
they lived quivered and hung like a benediction over a State that at 
one period — and I speak with almost literal truth — had within its 
boundaries all the prominent historians of the nation and all the poets 
of the first class and rank. And so I say, my friends, that the task of 
instructing the young, the task of teaching them something of the 
high love of letters and of learning, was made the easier to these men, 
because they taught on the soil of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
All these towns owe something to this beautiful figure of the 
State that rises about them and behind them, stretching out her handS 
in benediction, and with the love of a mother to all her children. They, 
too, are the bulwarks of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth 
returns the debt of gratitude to them. She congratulates them, one 
and all, upon their contributions to the sum aggregate of her honora- 
ble and illustrious history. She congratulates them "upon such an 
event as this. She bids them make their future, as she is confident 
they will, worthy of the past. She feels sure that, as in the past 
learned men have gone forth from Andover, that as in the past heroic 
defenders of the nation's honor have gone forth from the town of 
Andover, so in the future, whatever length of days may stretch in 
diminishing vista before the town of Andover, whether the future 
pathway of her progress be one bathed in the splendid sunlight of 
to-day, or whether dark and ominous clouds may shadow her path, she 
feels sure that the elements of manhood, the elements of womanhood 
that have made the history of Andover honorable and illustrious in 
the past, that these same elements of courage, patriotism, and high 
learning and good citizenship will always be found within this town in 
the future. 

The President : I give you as our next sentiment, 
The Ptiblic Set vice of the Nation. Andover is quick to 
recognize the wisdom, zeal and efficiency with which her 
rejaresentative at the national capitol shares in the current 
legislation of the country. The representative of the sixth 
congressional district signally honors his Andover constitu- 
ency to-day by making a journey from Washington for the 
special purpose of participating in our celebration. You will 
gratefully welcome the Hon. William S. Knox, of Lawrence. 



t20 ANbOVER, MASSACHUSEtTS 

CONGRESSMAN WILLIAM S. KNOX 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen : Enjoyable as this day is 
and has been out of doors, upon this beautiful site, where the fore- 
fathers planted the town of Andover, I am sure that our chief happiness 
has been in the old village church, as our thoughts have been directed 
back with a master-hand to the history of the events that have tran- 
spired here and the lives of the men that were spent here. And, 
when the orator said that he should leave to the orator of the three 
hundredth anniversary of Andover the duty of relating the history of 
this town in the civil war, I could but feel that the orator of that day 
will recount among the achievements of Andover the masterly oration 
which was delivered here upon its two hundred and fiftieth anniversary. 

I am grateful, Mr. President, for the privilege of sharing in the 
festivities of to-day and for the inspiration to higher thought and ef- 
fort that comes to us all as we contemplate a long past, glorified with 
the virtues of piety and patriotism of a people who have come and 
gone within the limits of this historic town. And, as I was driving 
this morning upon the high ground, and could see the beautiful land- 
scape and the smoke and the chimneys of Lawrence, I thought, if only 
one of those sturdy sons of toil and devotion who has tilled these fields 
and through patience and sacrifice helped to start the onward march 
of freedom and progress that has crossed the continent could be per- 
mitted to revisit these scenes to-day, he would find conformation of 
field and hill and river, he could listen to the same enunciation of 
religious truth. But that would be all. Only the works and work of 
the Creator would have endured here unchanged. Through the old 
woodlands he could see the imprisoned steam force the freighted cars 
over their pathway of steel, and would be told that over those glitter- 
ing rails he could ride to the Pacific Ocean. In what was once the 
ancient village street, he could see the car laden with humanity pro- 
pelled by an unseen power, lighted from an unknown source, a mighty 
energy, yet so subtle that over the homely wire upon which he gazed 
would be passing written messages of men and the delicate modulations 
of the human voice. Should he direct his steps still within the 
limits of the old township to the banks of the familiar river, and 
after the sun was down see the countless light reflected upon its 
placid wave, and be told it was no illusion, no dream of the fancy, but 
that those vast structures before him were filled with machinery of 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 121 

marvellous mechanism, that under the guidance of the human hand 
tirelessly spun and wove the useful and beautiful fabrics of an ad- 
vanced civilization ; and finally, when told that Andover was a part of 
a nation of more than three millions of square miles, and that over 
that vast extent there floated but one flag, and under that flag every 
man was free, he could but return to his abode of bliss with increased 

joy- 
In all this marvellous development of America, Andover has 
borne her full share, and now she represents, not the average intelli- 
gence, not the average of culture, but the highest intelligence, the 
consummation of culture. She typifies in herself the christian Com- 
monwealth. She illustrates the high character of citizenship that is 
fulfilled under a government founded upon the moral law. This high 
citizenship, which has been implanted in the new states of the west, 
must be the hope and reliance of the country in the future. Its 
mission is to preserve the traditions of the past, to educate her de- 
scendants and the vast throng of newcomers that reach our shores in 
the principles upon which this government was founded. 

I remember to have read within a week in a sermon the declaration 
of the preacher that, while the American Bible Society placed in the right 
hand of every immigrant a copy of the Holy Scriptures, the United 
States government ought to place in his left hand a volume containing 
a copy of the Declaration of Independence, the constitution of the 
United States, and an article upon the spirit of our laws. I would add 
to that, let that volume contain a history of one of the early towns of 
New England, let it contain a history of Andover, that he might be 
learned in all that makes good citizenship, that he might behold 
the love of liberty that drove our fathers to these shores, the 
piety and devotion of their lives, their heroism and sacrifice, their 
courage and thrift, their patience and submission to law. That is the 
kind of education that promises most for this country in the future. 
More than that, it is the kind that is absolutely essential to our safety 
and welfare in the future, for it is the intelligence of the majority that 
must shape our course, no matter how cultured may be the minority. 
Who can measure, then, the usefulness of this celebration to our 
common country, as the eloquent words which have been spoken, re- 
newing the events that have transpired here, and portraying the 
virtues of the men who founded this town, who passed their lives here, 



122 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

are through the medium of the press placed in the hands of the 
American people. This day does not belong to Andover. It has be- 
come the property of the entire country. Who could count the 
youth that, as they read of it, will be inspired to a more profound 
study of the early history of this country and a better understanding 
of the principles upon which this government was founded, a clearer 
conception of the danger of any departure from them. Who can 
estimate the men that now careless or negligent in the discharge of 
political duty, shall be quickened to its more conscientious exercise, 
shall become imbued with the spirit of our laws, shall get a closer view 
of the genius of American freedom. 

The light reflected from the history of Andover, as it has been 
portrayed by us today, will illumine, my friends, a pathway extending 
far into the future. The influence of New England as a numerical 
factor in the political movements of the day is small. Her lack of 
national resources, her distances from the source of supply or raw 
material, make it probable that her increase in number and in wealth 
will not keep pace in the future with that of the rest of the country ; 
but the power of her history, the store of the humble agricultural 
communities which had their beginnings here, will grow with the pass- 
ing years in the life of the republic. For the history and the story is 
of principle embodied in law, which is changeless with the flight of 
time, and which must be preserved as they were adopted here, if 
liberty and a free government are to endure upon this continent. 

Let, then, the story of Andover that has been told here to-day be 
spread broadcast throughout the land. Let it be spread again, we 
pray, two hundred and fifty years from now, and again a thousand 
years from now. 

The President : Before announcing the next senti- 
ment, I will read an extract from an Andover boy of the 
West Parish, Hon. George O. Shattuck, one of the foremost 
members of the legal profession at the Boston bar : 

" We have a right to be proud that we were born in a 
town with such a record of courage and sacrifice among its 
early settlers, and of enterprise and of wise liberality among 
those of later generations. It is good for us to hold these 
things in grateful remembrance." 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 1 23 

The President read a telegram from Rev. Dr. William 
Jewett Tucker, President of Dartmouth College, fourteen years 
a resident of Andover while Professor of Homiletics in Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary. 

" I greet the Andover of the present and future, as well as the 
Andover of the past. The Fathers are honored in the Sons. They 
have kept the birthright of intellectual freedom, and have enlarged 
the heritage. I congratulate those who are to have part in the greater 
inheritance." 

The president made reference to an excellent letter from 
Senator Frye, of Maine. 

The president also called attention to the fact that the 
leader of the famous band which gave such fine music is an 
Andover boy; Mr. J. Thomas Baldwin who first saw light on 
Salem Street. 

The President : Our Fathers : they builded better than 
they knew. A North Andover boy, who knows the history 
of the old town by heart, can speak as no one else can, of 
one of our ancient worthies, Andover's most illustrious 
citizen, Simon Bradstreet. I call upon Hollis R. Bailey, 
Esq., of Boston, for a response. 

HOLLIS R. BAILEY, ESQ. 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, fellow citizens, and friends : 
I have been introduced to you as of Boston. That was a mistake. I 
am of old Andover, and always hope to be, if not in legal residence, 
in love and affection and in filial devotion. 

I am asked to come here on this occasion as representing the 
daughter town of North Andover, my native town. And, in speaking 
on my own behalf and on behalf of the many citizens of North An- 
dover whom I see before me, I am sure I am right in saying that we 
have all come with willing feet and joyful hearts to join in this glad 
anniversary celebration. When I was born in 1852, there was but 
one Andover ; and, ladies and gentlemen and friends, there is but one 
Andover today. North, South, and West, are joined in one under 
glad influence of this anniversary occasion. A common tradition, 



124 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

a common ancestry, makes us one in thought, in feeUng, and in broth- 
erly affection. 

I have said we are proud to come here to-day and claim our part 
in this glorious inheritance of the old town of Andover. We are all 
proud of that inheritance. We have heard, as the orator of the day 
has most conspicuously detailed to you, the list of illustrious names. 
It is not for me to speak of those names, and yet it seems to me 
proper that I should speak of one or two or three which, on every 
occasion of this kind in the future, must come to the lips of every 
speaker. T.he names of Phillips, of Abbott, of Osgood, of Frye ; when 
can they be forgotten ? To leave them out were to leave out the 
major part of the history of Andover. And yet they all earned their 
laurels and gained their reputation long after the day when Simon 
Bradstreet died, a resident of the North Parish, the man of whom I 
am on this occasion to say a word. 

It seemed to me, when I was called to assume the duty of saying 
a word on behalf of North Andover, that there was no subject more 
fitting than that to remind you of Simon Bradstreet, who he was, and 
what he was, and what he did for the town of Andover. It seemed to 
me that, born in the house that he built, reared in the house where 
his noble wife, Anne Bradstreet, the first poetess of America, spent 
the closing years of her life, brought up in that house made notably 
famous, and the one relic of the past which has come down to us of 
all the many relics which are past and gone, the house where the In- 
dians came and took away in one wintry day the family of Dudley 
Bradstreet, and carried them on the road to Haverhill, to be released 
as you have been told in the poem we have heard read in the church. 
Now, Simon Bradstreet is entitled to our filial regard for four 
distinct reasons : first, as founder ; second, as magistrate ; third, as am- 
bassador ; and, fourth, as governor. 

I say, first, as founder ; for John Woodbridge, without the assist- 
ance and the encouragement of the elder brother-in-law, would hardly 
have ventured into the wilderness to establish the town of Andover. 
In 1644 and '45 and '46, it was a bold undertaking to establish, close 
under the Indian settlement on the banks of the Merrimack, a new 
town. It was asking a good deal for a delicate woman like Anne 
Bradstreet to venture into that wilderness ; and when John Woodbridge 
planned and carried out the settlement of Andover, he was bold and 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I25 

courageous in securing the support and encouragement of Simon 
Bradstreet ; and he was bold in asking his wife to come with him into 
the wilderness, because he knew that his wife's sister was coming to 
be a companion and support in that little community. Simon Brad- 
street, then, and John Woodbridge, as I read the pages of history, 
were the chief and principal founders of this old town. 

Next, Simon Bradstreet was a distinguished and worthy citizen of 
this town as a magistrate and judge of the Supreme Court for a period 
of forty-nine years. He has the reputation of having been an upright 
and just judge. All through those trying days of religious persecution, 
persecution of the Quakers and persecution of the so-called witches, 
Simon Bradstreet was the one who led in that persecution. 

Simon Bradstreet is also entitled to our glad recognition and re- 
membrance as the one citizen in all the colony who in that trying 
crisis in 1661 was selected out of all the laity of the colony to that 
delicate and dangerous mission to the court of Charles the Second. 
You remember the story. The little colony during the fifteen years 
of the war of the revolution and the government of Cromwell had 
grown bold in their enjoyment of their self -liberty, and then came the 
restoration of Charles the Second. The rumor came that their be- 
loved charter, the foundation of all their rights and privileges, was 
to be annulled. And then, the General Court selected two of its most 
able citizens to go to the court of Charles the Second and represent 
them. And a citizen of Andover, the chief citizen of Andover, Simon 
Bradstreet, was one of those ambassadors. In February, 1662, leaving 
the simplicity, the plainness, almost barrenness of that new settle- 
ment here in the town of Andover, Simon Bradstreet started on 
that stormy voyage on a wintry sea for the court of Charles the 
Second, that most luxurious of the Stuart kings. What a contrast it 
must have been between now and then ! And yet, Simon Bradstreet, 
that citizen of Andover, was faithful to the trust that was reposed in 
him, and was as successful as could have been expected. He obtained 
a further renewal or extension of the charter, and put off for twenty- 
five years the evil day, which at last came with the closing days of his 
life. 

In one other respect Simon Bradstreet is entitled to our grateful 
recognition. He was the one governor, as I recall the history of the 
town, that the town has thus far had. When we meet, as the orator 



126 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

of the day suggested wc should meet, fifty years hence, it is very 
possible that the town of Andover will have had two or three governors, 
but up to the present time Simon Bradstreet is the one representative 
that we have thus far had in the gubernatorial chair. I am sure of 
this, that there will come no crisis in the history of the Common- 
wealth that will be greater, that will require more skill and prudence 
and fidelity of its chief magistrate than did those troubled years in 
the latter part of the seventeenth century, when Bradstreet was called 
to the helm as a man of prudence, a man of integrity, as a man who 
might be safely called upon to conduct the little colony, as it then 
was, through those dangerous days. 

On this occasion, there is no time to make an analysis or a careful 
study of the character of Simon Bradstreet. The historian sets down 
that he was a man of prudence, a man of integrity, and a man of piety. 
I would add to that that, as it seems to me, he was a man of courage. 
In the year 1643, he stood out as a citizen of Ipswich against 
the conduct of Governor John Winthrop, and of his own father-in-law, 
Thomas Dudley. In those same years, as commissioner of the united 
colonies of New England, by his prudence and firmness and courage, 
he prevented a disastrous war with the Dutch settlement. In almost 
the final year of his life, in that troubled time when Andros was de- 
posed, and the provisional government was set up, Bradstreet, above 
the age of ninety, was called to the helm. It required no small degree 
of personal courage to take that position, for the reason that no one 
knew whether the Stuart king or his successor would, at the coming of 
the next ship from England, send his commissioners to bring back the 
heads of the men who had been so bold as to take up that position on 
behalf of the colonies. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen and friends, I desire, on behalf of the 
citizens of North Andover, to thank the authorities of Andover, to 
thank all others at Andover, for their courtesy extended to us of the 
daughter town. I say the daughter town, because we recognize the 
fact that on other occasions than this there may be rivalry — always a 
generous rivalry — but on this occasion, I repeat, we are all one. 

Now, let me say in closing, we shall always, fifty years hence, 
and two hundred and fifty years hence, I am sure, be glad to come and 
unite with the mother town as members of one household in any 
celebration which holds up and sustains the honor of old Andover. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I27 

The President : We are fortunate in having with us 
the owner of one of the best farms in Massachusetts ; a 
man bearing an old Andover name in the days of 1775, and 
a neighbor in our own County of Essex, — Capt. Francis H. 
Appleton of Peabody, whom I will ask to respond to the 
sentiment, The Progress of Modern Agriculture : Practice co- 
operating with Science makes two blades of grass grow 
where only one grew before. 

CAPT. FRANCIS H. APPLETON 

It is both a privilege and a pleasure to be called on to speak in 
this interesting and historic town upon an occasion like this, where I 
vividly remember passing a number of summer months in my child- 
hood's days, upon the shores of your beautiful Cochickewick Lake 
near the old mill. I feel grateful to have, as your guest, been permit- 
ted to listen this morning to so interesting an oration and so delightful 
a poem, both so admirably presented. 

Descended from Ipswich stock on one side, and from Salem Vil- 
lage stock on the other, I am glad to come up from Southern Essex to 
try and speak a few words to you under the toast advanced by your 
presiding officer. 

The people of Massachusetts and good old Essex County are 
universally interested in agriculture, and when prayers were recently 
offered up in the churches for rain, I am sure that all others joined in 
a like supplication for that which is of prime necessity in all branches 
of agriculture. That prayer was then universal among our people. 

Soon after the termination of the Revolutionary war, Gen. Wash- 
ington, Col. Timothy Pickering and others joined in an effort to pro- 
mote the cause of agriculture in the new nation. This encouraged 
the forming of societies, and establishment of newspaper columns in 
the interest of better agriculture. State societies were organized from 
1785-1792, in South Carolina, Pennsylvania and New York, as well as 
in Massachusetts. 

Among those in Massachusetts who made early efforts to advance 
our agriculture, were : Samuel Adams, " the father of the Revolu- 
tion ; " John Amory, Jr., then Secretary of State ; Charles Bulfinch, 
well known in connection with the capitol at Washington and our 
state house ; Stephen Higginson, a Salem-born man ; Samuel Holten 
of Danvers ; John Lowell (1743-1802), who sent his son John to 



128 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

Phillips Academy in the first year of the academy, 1778, with Josiah 
Quincy and John Phillips ; and Azro Orne of Marblehead. 

It is interesting to note that both the Lowells, father and son, 
were presidents of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agricul- 
ture which Samuel Adams and the others established in 1792. 

The members of that old society joined in forming county socie- 
ties later, and in 1818 Col. Pickering and others organized the Essex 
Agricultural Society for our County at Topsfield. Dr. Treadwell later 
gave his farm to that society, undoubtedly feeling that the cattle show 
would later need a fixed abode at this geographical centre. 

The early efforts of our patriotic citizens, of all callings in the 
work of life, to advance agriculture has so continued. But of later 
years the needs and conditions have greatly changed. 

The Department of Agriculture at Washington has been estab- 
lished with its many scientific branches, and includes the very valuable 
Experimental Station Bureau. Then the national government has 
appropriated large sums of money for use in the several states and 
territories for agricultural experiment station work and agricultural 
college advancement. Other agricultural departments of learning 
exist, as, for example, at Harvard's Bussey Institution, and Arnold 
Arboretum, and veterinary school. 

Surely, science is offering opportunities for the practical mind to 
receive, and apply to agricultural needs, much profitable knowledge. It 
only remains for our people to see that the best means are provided so 
that those who need it shall be able to readily obtain it so that it shall 
redound to the State. 

There is no reason why two blades of grass should not grow 
where one grew before, on land that is worth cultivating. Undoubtedly 
much land which is cleared to-day would be more profitable if covered 
with trees, because too poor for tillage. 

It is, however, truly discouraging to see the sweeping destruction 
caused by carelessness, if by no worse motive, or lack of motive, of so 
much of our wood lands. You of Andover saw it yesterday and the 
day before, while we in Peabody and Lynnfield were fighting the 
damaging and dangerous flames at the same time. 

Is not carelessness even criminal, that may result in destroying, 
by forest fire, valuable and beautiful wood lands, and too often wiping 
off the face of the earth all an individual householder's belongings that 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY I 29 

he calls his home ? I feel that it is clearly so, and that the most strin- 
gent laws are needed in this direction. We are behind some other 
States in this, where we should lead. 

Agriculture is a business, as is the occupation of the merchant ; 
and the agriculturalists and other business men must continue to walk 
and work together for their own and the country's good. They must 
promote, and apply the results of intelligent study, especially when 
the government appropriates much money for a like purpose. The 
tax-payer has reason to object if the use of those payments is not to 
good purpose. 

Massachusetts agriculture must advance by the application of 
advanced science. We boast of our educational institutions in this 
State, as you of Andover can well do. Let us see that the product is 
applied to the State's good in agriculture as in all other branches of 
activity in this world's affairs. 

Under the statutes, every citizen is eligible to membership in our 
county agricultural societies. I believe that the membership in such 
societies must be the medium of bringing better agriculture from the 
teachings of our National Department of Agriculture and our State 
experiment stations, to those who are entrusted with our country's 
acreage. 

I thank you for your kind attention to my few words. 

The next toast was The Sons of Andover in the Christian 
Ministry, but Rev. Dr. E. Winchester Donald who was to 
respond was unable to be present. 

The President : After the plough, the church, and 
the schoolhouse, come the mill, the factory, and the machine 
shop, I give you The Industrial Interests of Andover. The 
Industrial Arts will receive the greatest impulse if honor is 
given to those who carry great enterprises to an assured 
success. Who is better qualified to respond to this senti- 
ment than the man whom both Andovers — North and South 
— delight to honor, their foremost manufacturer, and late 
representative in Congress,— the Hon. Moses T. Stevens .-' 

HON. MOSES T. STEVENS 

Mr. President : We have heard from the orator of the day, and 
from the speeches that have been made here, a good deal about the 



130 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

olden times. We have gone back a good ways. The president has 
asked me to respond to the manufacturing interests of the town, and I 
cannot go back as far as others do, but the men to whom I refer are 
men whom I have personally known, and you all know that I am a 
young man yet. 

After a few brief opening remarks Mr. Stevens continued : 

The textile and mechanical manufacturers of the early days of 
our country, dwelt in nearly every house. While the mothers and 
daughters were occupied in carding, spinning and weaving the woolen 
and linen goods for the clothing of the families, for which we see the 
primitive tools in yonder hall, fathers and sons were engaged in cul- 
tivating the lands, nearly every one of them having some kind of a 
mechanical trade which they carried on for themselves, and in supply- 
ing the wants of the country, which gave them great self-reliance, and 
carried out the spirit of freedom which had much to do with their 
commg to this new country, as well as led to their success. 

Early in the settlement of the country, mills for grinding corn 
and manufacturing lumber had been established at points on Cochich- 
ewick brook in the north parish, and on the Shawsheen river in the 
south parish. 

Between 1800 and 18 10, James Schofield and Abraham Marland 
came from England where they had learned the woolen business, and 
both commenced to manufacture woolen goods in the north parish. 
Mr. Schofield remained there, and Mr. Marland went to the south 
parish. Mr. Marland continued to manufacture woolen goods in the 
south parish and experimented somewhat in cotton, but became one of 
the largest woolen manufacturers of the times, and founded the village 
which now bears his name. In 1828, he appeared before the Com- 
mittee on Manufactures of the House of Representatives at Washing- 
ton, and testified that in 1825 he worked up 34,000 lbs. of wool, in 
1826, 34,000 lbs., and in 1827, 50,000 lbs. of wool in a year. 

I will leave our former townsman, Mr. Whitman of the Arlington 
mills, and our present townsman, Mr. Wood of the Washington mills, 
to figure on the number of minutes that quantity of wool would 
supply their vast establishments, to show how great has been the in- 
crease from these small beginnings. 

In answer to a question why he came to America, in 181 5, Mr. 
Marland answered that " he might have elbow room for his children." 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY I3I 

The same spirit induced Ezekiel Osgood in 1764, with a family of 
twelve children to emigrate from Andover to Blue Hill in Maine, 
giving as a reason that "he wanted to go where his children would 
have no stint of land." 

After Mr. Marland had established the business in the village 
which bears his name, his eldest son, John Marland, inheriting the 
spirit of enterprise from his father, went to Ballardvale and founded 
the present Ballardvale company. For a time he took a hand in the 
cotton business, his attention was also given to the worsted business ; 
he was the first man to introduce the worsted business into this country, 
but did not contirme it, as the times were not ripe for reaping the 
rich harvest which has been the means of building the great worsted 
mills of this country. He built the large shop which has been used for 
various purposes. 

John Marland had been educated as a flannel manufacturer, and 
made that his chief business. His monument stands there today, in a 
business for which he laid the foundation and which was continued by 
those who were early associated with him, then coming to a descend- 
ant of one of the original proprietors, Capt. Bradlee, who while living, 
gave his whole life to the care of that business, and who will be known 
to future generations by the praises of those who are today employees 
of the mills for his liberality and attention to their wants and by those 
who are in the future to receive untold benefits from the disposition of 
his great fortune. 

With the increase of population, there had been a corresponding 
increased demand for woolen goods and other men, natives of Andover 
and the neighboring towns, were induced to embark in the new enter- 
prise of manufacturing. The war of 181 2 had made prices very high, 
and called much attention to those interests. 

In 181 3, Nathaniel Stevens built a mill on Cochichewick brook, 
on the site where Mr. Bradstreet built the first grist mill, in North 
Andover, and giving his whole attention to manufacturing, with the aid 
of James Schofield, was soon able to carry it on successfully, and laid 
the foundation of the present Stevens mills, which are now run by his 
successors. 

In 1826, William Sutton of Danvers, and in 1828, George Hodges 
of Salem, came to the north parish and started small mills which under 



132 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

their care and active attention, have grown to the present proportions, 
and are now run by the successors of William Sutton. 

Among the early men to engage in this business were Abiel and 
Paschall Abbott, from whom Abbott Village derives its name and 
Daniel Saunders, who was instrumental in starting the neighboring 
city of Lawrence, was also at one time engaged in the manufacture of 
wool in the north parish. The enterprise of all these men has made 
Andover one of the largest woolen manufacturing towns in the state. 

About 1820, there came from Scotland another who is remembered 
by many of the present generation, John Smith, a true mechanic, who 
was alive to all the interests of his fellow men, regardless of race, 
religion or color. No better friend of the colored man ever lived. 
His first venture was to establish a machine shop in which machinery 
was built for the cotton mills that were rapidly increasing in the 
countr}-. From the first start he was successful. In a little book 
called the " Rich Men of Massachusetts," published fifty years ago, 
the estimated amount of his property is stated with these comments : 
"Native of Scotland, came to this country about forty years ago a 
poor man, first a machinist at Waltham, and afterwards went into busi- 
ness at Andover. W'lien he had made a fortune here, he sent for his 
friends from Europe, for whom he had made ample pro\nsion. A man 
of great industry, who looks after his own business. Benevolent in 
the extreme." 

Among the " friends from Europe for whom he made ample pro- 
vision," were his brother Peter Smith and John Dove. These men 
induced him to engage in the linen business which resulted in the 
extensive linen works in Abbott Village now run by their successors, 
which have been so great a benefit to the town. The Smiths and 
Dove endeared themselves to the town by their great liberality and 
public spirit, contributing largely of their means to the Seminary, 
which has such a wide reputation and is such an honor to the town, as 
well as to every object of interest. 

The success of John Smith led others of strong character to 
engage in mechanical works. About 1830, George L. Davis learned 
his trade as machinist in a small shop in the Marland Village. Later 
he became the leading man in a machine shop in North Andover, 
which grew to large proportions, but not larger than the man himself, 
who by his undivided attention to business made it a great success, 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 133 

which to-day is known through the land for its mechanical devices. 
In later years other industries have been started to remain per- 
manently in Andover, and given the town a wide reputation. H. G. 
Tyer founded a rubber business in 1856, which he firmly established 
and his descendants are now following with great success. 

Andover has also produced mechanics who have made their mark. 
Many mills throughout the country and the dam across the Merrimack 
river at Lawrence, are monuments to the skill and energy of Capt. 
Phineas Stevens, and many of the structures in town, firm as the rocks 
on which they stand, attest to the mechanical engineering of Jacob 
Chickering, who was succeeded by George L. Abbott and W. S. Jen- 
kins, men well known to the present generation and under whose 
direction, the leading firm of builders in town today were brought up. 

One of the oldest and best known of the smaller industries was 
started over sixty years ago by Wm. Poor, a native of the town, in Frye 
Village, who has just relinquished active business at the age of ninety 
years, in the full enjoyment of his health and faculties. 

While these men were striving for success in their different 
branches of business, there was the same difference of opinion as there 
is today in regard to the legislation that would be necessary to enable 
this country to compete with other parts of the world, and give means 
of carrying on the government. One thing is sure, that the compe- 
tition among the different manufacturers, either textile or mechanical, 
has been of great benefit to the whole people of this country in giving 
them whatever they consume at the lowest possible price. 

It is difficult to estimate the influence the men of Andover had 
in starting the development of different industries which have gone 
forward and made Massachusetts and New England truly manufacturing 
communities. Starting in a small way, giving their personal attention 
to every detail, their success encouraged men of capital to combine in 
corporations and carry on large establishments, which have been the 
pride of New England, and contributed largely to her wealth. 

The President : The Sons of Andover in the War for 
the Union: They carried into the struggle the lessons of 
purity, courage, and patriotism imbibed in the homes, the 
schools, and the churches of this New England town. 
Happily for us " Captain Jack Adams " is with us to-day ; 
he shall speak for himself and for his brave comrades of 
the days of '61. I present Captain John G. B. Adams. 



1^4 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSEttS 

CAPT. JOHN G. B. ADAMS 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen : I really cannot understand 
why I am here, and yet, if any of you have received a note from 
Prof. Churchill, you will understand that the sweetness of that note 
will bring a man or a woman anywhere. I am glad to be here and 
say a word for the boys who served their country from Andover. I 
was not a resident or a citizen of this town, but born on the banks of 
the Merrimack a few miles from here, I feel that perhaps I can join 
with you in celebrating this day. 

The record of Andover in the rebellion is an honorable one. I 
find that three hundred and eighty-six men enlisted and were accred- 
ited from this town, and that is said to be nearly a hundred less than 
really should have been accredited, for Andover responded to every 
call made by the President of the United States, and at the close of 
the war had nineteen to its credit over and above all demands. It also 
expended $30,650, exclusive of state aid, for the men engaged at the 
front and the families of those behind. The men of Andover were on 
every battle-field in the war. They fought with Sheridan, with Sher- 
man, with Grant ; they fought with Farragut and Porter in the navy. 
They were the boys of Andover, as they were of every town. They 
were not much interested in the war when it began. They had not 
done much of the talking on the issues before the war. Most of the 
men who had done the talking stayed at home and talked while we 
were gone, and we found them talking when we got back. But the 
men did a good deal of thinking. We remember that down on the 
Peninsula, when the colored man saw the old flag and came into our 
ranks, feeling that he would be safe, we had to say to him then that 
we were fighting this war to restore the Union as it was, and you 
must go back into slavery, for we cannot protect and receive you 
under the folds of the star spangled banner, and the boys talked it 
over and said we should not succeed in the war, and God knows we 
ought not to have succeeded, until Abraham Lincoln signed the eman- 
cipation proclamation and made every man free. 

Well, then, we sometimes hear it said that the soldiers were a 
mercenary horde ; and yet we remember that when the banker was 
dickering with the government and demanding two dollars and a half 
in greenbacks for one dollar in gold, the soldiers at the front were 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I35 

receiving actually thirteen dollars a month in greenbacks, equal to six 
dollars in gold ; and the men didn't strike. They didn't form labor 
organizations or any unions. The only union they formed or belonged 
to was the Union of the United States of America. 

Well, Lee finally surrendered to Grant, and every hat of the boys 
went high in air, and every voice joined in loud huzzas, for we didn't 
want to fight, we wanted peace ; and when peace was declared every 
Union soldier was delighted and happy. They heard him say to the 
rebels, " Take your horses and go home and till the soil ;" and the 
Union soldier did not murmur when he got down from his horse, turned 
it over to the government, and tramped home. He had no horse to 
till the soil furnished him by the government, but he came and rolled 
up his sleeves and entered into it with zest when he got back to the old 
town of Andover. We were not mercenary then. If we wanted the 
old musket we had to point out to our children when we talked about 
the war, we paid the government six dollars for it. We came, as I 
say, marching home ; we felt that we had done our duty well, and it 
can truly be said that we had been as good citizens as we were good 
soldiers. In proof of this story I looked up the official record from 
the town of Andover, and find in 1865 the following from the chairman 
of your selectmen ; " I am glad, as an official, to declare that the men 
as a body are better citizens than they were before enlisting .in the 
service. Some three hundred and more of our citizens have returned, 
and I can hardly point to a single crime since their return." — William 
S. Jenkins, Chairman of the Selectmen. 

And now we hear to-day many of the people of the younger 
generation talking about war with the foreign nations. Mr. Chairman, 
you don't hear the boys that know what war means talk about war. 
We hear those who sent substitutes issue proclamations and talk 
about a war with foreign nations. But God knows we want no more 
war in this land. Have arbitration, talk, talk forever, but don't fight 
unless the honor of the nation requires it. Don't fight about Con- 
gress ; don't fight about a little piece of land that we can buy for $1.50. 
We don't want to see our children pass through what we passed 
through in the early days. 

On the thirtieth of May you will see the little remnant of the army 
and navy march through your streets. They will not attract your 
attention by their imposing appearance. Their forms will be bent, their 



136 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

step slow and tottering. As you see them, don't forget, sir, that when 
this nation wanted men to march, to fight, to die if need be, they 
responded to the call. Remember, ladies and gentlemen, that they 
gave the best years of their lives and the strength and vigor of their 
young manhood for the country, and remember them for what they 
did and all they dared, remember them to-day. 

I love to appear for the comrades on occasions like this. I feel 
that every soldier has been honored by the chairman of this meeting, 
in giving the soldiers of Andover a place in this program, and I ask 
you, as citizens of this dear old town, to be just as true and loyal to 
them in their declining years as you have always been in the past. 
God knows what the ordeal has been to the men who defended this 
nation. I know from testimony in many ways, and I urge you, as the 
old boys are going down the vale of life, to love them just as tenderly 
until the last man is mustered out. 

The President : I give you as our next sentiment, — 
The Orator of tlic Day : He has laid his fellow citizens 
under lasting obligation for his brilliant and valuable service. 

ALBERT POOR, ESQ. 

Mr. Chairman and friends : I am the victim of oppression. When 
I received the kindly invitation of the selectmen or the citizens of 
Andover, something over fourteen months ago, to be their orator upon 
this occasion, I immediately applied myself to several dozens of dusty 
old volumes which are safely stored away down here in the town house 
safe. I read them through with a great deal of care and a great deal 
of pleasure, and finally the days of fall came on, when I began to 
write, and then apace grew the pages, day after day, until they reached 
the somewhat portentous proportions that you have seen upon the 
pulpit of the Old South Church to-day and within my hands now. 
My impression of them is that of all the stuff I have prepared for this 
occasion I read about one-half. I supposed I should have the opportu- 
nity of talking to you an indefinite length of time there in the Old 
South Church, but last night I happened to meet the gentleman who 
presided, and with a knowing twinkle in his eye he said, "Poor, is it 
going to be more than an hour 1 " That is my first oppression ; and 
then I have still another one. About a month ago, one Sunday night 
Prof. Churchill and myself were returning, I suppose from our various 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 137 

pulpits, and I met him on the train. Said he, "Poor, we shall expect 
you to say something after the dinner." "Yes, yes, of course," I said, 
"of course." And immediately I tossed aside these valuable manu- 
scripts which I had partly finished at that time, and began to apply 
myself to the production of an after dinner speech. Last night, I met 
Prof. Churchill, and with a very knowing wink in his eye, he said to 
me, " Poor, the poetess is going to respond in about a minute and a 
half. She has it written out." Oppression number two. And that 
is my condition to-day. 

But there were really two or three things that I desired to speak 
about. First, I wanted to go somewhat more carefully into the cause 
of complaint between the two parishes in 1700. They were divided 
in about 1709, and the great division came upon the building of a new 
church here. I desired also to go somewhat more fully into the gen- 
eral topic of this sweet aspect of nature that surrounds us everywhere. 
But all that I have passed by. I hoped also to make some suggestions 
to you this afternoon in regard to perpetuating the historic sites with 
which we are favored. All that I have passed by. 

I am very grateful to you all, and now I am coming to the point 
where I am going to obey your instructions and in less than a minute 
and a half I am going to thank these people for all their references to 
my work of to-day. That work was to me one of the most fascinating 
in which I have engaged. I have found it so engaging that it was 
a pleasure to sit down and write it up. You can imagine how these 
sheets grew from one to another with rapid succession, until finally 
the tale was told. If there was any merit in that address of this fore- 
noon, that merit, like the orator of this occasion, is due to Andover 
herself. She herself is her best orator, and that, ladies and gentlemen 
who have listened to me this afternoon, is all I have to say. Be hers 
the glory and the honor forever, for hers is the source of all the goods 
we are enjoying to-day. 

The President : You naturally anticipate the next 
sentiment. The Poet of the Day. The literary successor of 
Anne Bradstreet deserves and wins the admiration of her 
grateful fellow citizens. We miss the desired presence of 
our poet at this hour, but she has sent to the president of 
the Banquet her response in grateful prose. 



138 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

MRS. ANNIE SAWYER DOWNS 

While I regret that I cannot join personally in the reminiscences 
and congratulations of this auspicious occasion, I am yet glad of an 
opportunity to thank the town for inviting me to write its anniversary 
poem. 

I have greatly enjoyed doing so. Indeed so constantly during 
the last few months have I been associated with our first settlers, 
that I seem to have lived with them in their rude houses and shared 
their noble though laborious lives, their lofty aims, their self-sacrificing 
endeavors. 

Dwelling thus upon the loftier aspects of our annals, and noting 
with pride how each succeeding generation has carried out the high 
purposes of its predecessors, there has grown up in ine a confident 
assurance, that, as it has been in the past, so it will be in the future ; 
that the Andover of the twentieth century, the Andover which a 
hundred years from today will be praised and sung by other lips than 
ours, will be honest, strong, fearless, and, above all, true to the prin- 
ciples of its founders, those principles which wear forever, " the dew 
of their youth." 

The President : A Son of Andover sitting in our 
presence is a graduate of Phillips Academy, an alumnus of 
the Theological Seminary and a member of its Faculty, and 
an efldcient member of the Board of Trustees of Abbot 
Academy. 

I will call upon Rev. Professor John Phelps Taylor to 
respond for Tlie Three bistitntiotis on Andover Hill : They 
embody and illustrate the spirit and watchword of Modern 
Culture, — Sweetness and Light. 

PROFESSOR JOHN PHELPS TAYLOR. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : We have received a 
message from one, who represents sweetness and light, if any such 
there has been here, in that telegram from President Tucker of Dart- 
mouth College. May I be permitted to borrow a story, associated 
with him at a recent Dartmouth Commencement, and narrated by 
Hon. Mr. Marden, late State Treasurer .' A man was learning to ride 
a bicycle, as I learned last summer, and falling forward and backward, 
to the North and the South, the East and the West, till at last his 



250Ttt ANNIVERSARV 139 

wife, loving him no doubt as Anne Bradstreet her illustrious husband, 
sympathetically inquired "Dear, can't I hold you on ?" He stopped 
and he looked and he spoke and he said " If you are capable of holding 
anything, won't you please hold your tongue ? " I will hold my 
tongue, Mr. President, after the eloquence, the poetry, the fascinating 
charm, the high fellowship, the thrilling motions, the heroic memories, 
the sacred inspirations of this golden day — but not till I have re- 
sponded to your compelling toast. " Sweetness and Light in Ando- 
ver's Three Great Schools." 

Here Abbot Academy has the right of way. For the poet is 
Abbot's glory today and before me are the faces of its other teachers 
from the present Principal, who weds Holyoke and Abbot not less 
gracefully than Mrs. Downs and Mr. Downs wed Bradford and Abbot, 
like a strain of music, — to that illustrious one whom we all delight to 
honor for her character and curriculum, Miss McKeen, whose name is 
written on the hearts of a thousand pupils, as legibly as on the walls 
of the McKeen rooms in Draper Hall. Yesterday I went to a recita- 
tion in Dante. There in the old room sat a Marland, a Holt, a Jack- 
son, of the old Andover families. There too seemed to breathe again 
the sweetness and light of the Woods, the Stuarts, the Emersons, the 
Flaggs, the Goulds, the Fryes, the Abbots, who sat at the shining 
desks in the blossoming May almost seventy years ago. Listening I 
heard how the Florentines, even in heaven, had to remember their own 
splendid town, enflowered in her great deeds. Even so the tablets of 
Memorial Hall through Peter Smith the father, and the perfect pro- 
cession with Punchard Cadets and Phillips Seniors in cap and gown, 
and horse and foot and firemen and trades and bands and national airs 
marching after Peter Smith the son, make Andover remembered among 
the celestial hosts today. Smith Hall is speaking in the loan collection 
of the Daughters of the Revolution. Madame Phillips is lingering in 
the last of the tableaux of Alfred Ripley, as if loth to leave the town 
hall which has been the scene of her four-fold triumph through Emily 
Means. In the world of light I can almost see the sainted Stone and 
Farwell, there too are Badger and Jackson, Amos Blanchard, and 
Abbot, Elias Cornelius, Samuel Fuller, Lyman Coleman, Bela B. 
Edwards, Alpheus Hardy, Nathaniel Swift, Edward Buck, George 
L. Davis, Geo. W. Coburn, Rufus S. Frost, old trustees, rejoicing 
in the school, which to many a daughter of God and missionary of 



140 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

the Cross, was a Paradise below in foretaste of the Paradise above. 

Phillips Academy next unveils the scroll of her preceptors. I 
recall first the erudite Pearson, and the courtly Pemberton and then 
Mark Newman, Exeter's gift to Andover through John Phillips and 
Benjamin Abbot, a Greek in personal beautj', sleeping at the Mansion 
House, we are told with his pupil, that darling son of Judge and 
Madame Phillips, who was torn in the flower of youth from his fond 
parents, just as he was about to begin the study of Greek. 

Next came John Adams, a Roman of the Romans. He was great 
as well as good. Who can forget that keen eye that looked into the 
consciences of over one thousand pupils and trained two hundred 
preachers of righteousness from 18 10 to 1833, not the least of whom 
was his own son the golden-mouthed wide-cultured pastor of Madison 
Avenue Presb)'terian Church, New York. His tablet is on our Chapel 
walls and his portrait in our Academy Hall. Thanks to him we had 
Osgood Johnson. He was Phillips fifth principal and the only 
principal before or since of Andover birth. The peerless orator of 
this morning has made us proud to link him with the Johnson House 
and the Johnson School. The exquisite sobriety of the inscription on 
his tomb from the hand of Prof. Park informs me of Kingsley of 
Yale, attests the symmetr)' of his character and the finish of his 
scholarship. And Osgood Johnson discovered, in a student of Andover 
Theological Seminar}-, the great Educator, compact of Roman law and 
Hellenic learning, whom Hon. Moses T. Stevens and six thousand 
other pupils called Master and for thirty-four years was venerated 
not the less under the name of " Uncle Sara." How he would have 
fought the forest fires had he been alive on Monday last ! 

" I understood the structure of the Parthenon because Dr. Taylor 
explained it in Andover," said a missionary on Mars Hill. And 
when he fell on the threshold of the Academy with the Greek New 
Testament in his hand, that snow)- Sunday mom of 1871, a hero 
of the light, his torch was taken by his successor. Alas that we 
cannot welcome Frederic Tilton here today in person. He, who 
adorned whatever he touched, has spoken to us this afternoon, how- 
ever, from the lips of his pupil, the fit and felicitous delineator of 
Simon Bradstreet, Andover's Founder, Magistrate, Ambassador and 
Governor. He has spoken to us also in Abbot, through another 
scholar, like-minded with himself, whom he so trained in Newport's 



250TH ANNIVERSARY 14I 

Rogers School that her pupils have won marks unsurpassed by any in 
the land at the Harvard entrance examinations. Tilton found Phillips 
classical. Tilton left Phillips classical and mathematical. The eighth 
principal, long may he be the last, I dare not praise. Let me exult 
with you in the fact that my honored father helped select and elect 
him to his great office. Will not Dr. Fiske, President, and Dr. Well- 
man, Trustee of the Board of Guardians of Phillips Academy, who 
have brought to this celebration the quintessence of the Puritan culture 
and the Puritan spirit, accept the thanks of every citizen of Andover 
for furnishing the school with a head who is a man of affairs as well 
as a man of books, who is a golden clasp between town and gown, who 
is the school-boy's ideal of the fire of youth and the wisdom of age. 
Not even in Dr. Taylor has Dartmouth made to Andover a nobler gift 
than in him who presided as felicitously over the exercises of this 
morning as William G. Goldsmith presided over Phillips and Punchard 
both, and as Peter Smith Byers would have presided had he not been 
called up higher — our Chairman of the Committee of Fifteen, Dr. 
Cecil Bancroft. 

Dr. Bancroft is an alumnus of Andover Theological Seminary, 
under Prof. Park. So, too, are my colleagues of to-day, my fellow- 
students of yesterday, Harris, Ryder, Hincks. Together we enjoyed 
the sweetness and light of one whose Lexicon of New Testament 
Greek is no fairer monument than the honesty, the courtesy, the mag- 
nanimity he carried from Andover to Harvard — Professor Thayer. 
The acute philosophical mind of Charles Mead we have lost to Hart- 
ford. In return Hartford has loaned to us the brilliant Williston 
Walker as our Southworth Lecturer on Congregationalism. Selah 
Merrill, explorer, author, consul, patriot is still the Curator of our 
museum. William Ropes, after having bestowed a son and a fellow 
on the Harvard Divinity School, almost as urbane and accomplished 
as himself, remains our Librarian. The old carpenter's shop is gone ; 
but the "Carpenter" building, with historic tablet, the old houses over 
again, and from the study of Mr. Martin making the Co7igregationalist 
a school-house of sweetness and light to the children of America, is 
our Necrologist of immortal youth. A McKenzie has been our Lec- 
turer on Pastoral Theology, a Blodget, his affluent and inspiring peer, 
our Hyde Lecturer on Foreign Missions. Dr. Alden, late Secretary 
of the American Board, but once our trustee and professor elect, and 



142 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

pastor of a church bearing Phillips' name, has gone to the Mount Zion 
above, sealing in his will that consecration of wealth to Christian edu- 
cation and Christian missions which his friend and ours, Professor 
Gulliver, converted in Andover a Phillips boy, and dying in Andover 
a seminary professor, signalized no less when he brought with him 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars into our treasury. 

With him then, and with us now, is the honored President of our 
Faculty, who has fought a battle for intellectual and religious freedom 
as heroically and as successfully as any Bradstreet in the witchcraft or 
Frye in the revolutionary days of Andover. And then comes up 
before me Samuel Farrar with his rosy cheeks and silver}' locks, a 
Harvard scholar and tutor, the trustee of Abbot and Phillips alike, 
teacher, treasurer, law}er, librarian, the first president of the Andover 
Bank before John Flint, John Taylor, Edward Taylor and Moses 
Stevens, the builder of the dormitories of the house from whose win- 
dow Madame Phillips could survey the seminar}- she founded till her 
eyes were closed in death. I recall him as a clock of punctuality and 
a mirror of courtliness. Also how he was present, a venerable man 
of eighty-four, at the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Andover 
Theological Seminar}' in 1858, when the news of the laying of the 
Atlantic cable came and he was addressed almost as Samuel Phillips' 
son — six years before he had his wish and lay down to sleep and wake 
with God. And shall not posterity remember how it has been granted 
us to-day to rise and applaud the Nestor of New England Congrega- 
tionalism, the grand old man of our Puritan theolog}', the Emeritus 
Abbot Professor, Professor Park, once a youthful bearer of the culture 
of Brown and Amherst to this holy hill, now that his foimt of sacred 
learning is seven-mouthed like the Nile, Farrar's senior by three years, 
and Gladstone's by one, standing. as of old in the pulpit which was his 
throne to three schools and three generations, a ver}' benediction of 
Heaven on the high noon of his beloved Andover. 

And you, Mr. President, my classmate in the Seminary, a son of 
Andover by adoption, an alumnus of Phillips, residing on the site of 
the first Academy, most accomplished of toast-masters, I cannot wish 
a purer honor or more of sweetness and light than to be Professor 
elect of Sacred Rhetoric in that chair of the Theological Seminary 
for which Professor Phelps held you his favorite candidate, and which 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I 43 

Professor Park illustrated long after vacating it, by his inimitable 
addresses to the girls of Abbot Academy. 

Long live these three schools and all the schools of the good old 
town, mother and daughter, North Andover and Andover. For this 
is the spirit of kindred, this is the spirit of beauty, this is the spirit of 
righteousness and of God. Amen. 

PROF. CHURCHILL, IN CLOSING 

As we part, thinking perhaps of the three hundredth anniversary, 
when the sons and daughters of Andover shall assemble on a similar 
occasion to this, happy is the thought that many of the boys and girls 
present to-day will participate in that far distant scene. Then, as 
now, may the sons and daughters of Andover look backward with 
exultation and thanksgiving, and forward with confidence and antici- 
pation. Let us remind ourselves, as we separate, of the words of one 
of Andover's most illustrious kinsmen, Wendell Phillips : " To be as 
good as our fathers, we must be better." Imitation is not discipleship. 
Let us part, as we began the festivities of the afternoon, by singing a 
song : " Auld Lang Syne." 



144 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



LOAN COLLECTION AND HISTORIC SITES 



The follo^^•ing interesting report of this remarkable feature 
of the celebration is submitted for the committee by Mrs. 
Salome J. Marland, the secretan,- of the Loan Collection Com- 
mittee. An interesting supplement to this report \vi\\ be found 
in the complete catalogue of the collection issued and sold at 
the time of the celebration, in which is published a full list of 
articles exhibited, except as noted in this report. 

The Sub-Committee on Loan Collection and Historic Sites 
deemed it a privilege to present to the citizens of Andover e\'idences 
of its pre-historic existence ; Indian relics, war curiosities, industrial 
methods, literary and educational activities, religious growth, and 
more than all portraits and pictures, wnth the mode and manner of 
living, of the men and women who made " Andover everywhere and 
always, first, last, — the manly, straightforward, sober, patriotic. New 
England town." 

With the catalogue showing in detail about three-quarters of the 
articles exhibited, it is not necessar}- to speak individually of each 
phase of the collection, but as so many articles were brought to the 
hall after the catalogue had gone to press, it seemed wise to repeat in 
this official report the valuable data under " Portraits and Pictures of 
Andover Men and Women ; Old Houses and Sites," and also give a 
general plan of the exhibit with names of those contributing articles. 

Those comparing the catalogue with this account wiU understand 
that this statement explains any discrepancies. 

The Punchard School HaU was obtained and every facility for 
work granted by the school Board, Trustees and Faculty. The hall 
entrance was decorated with flags and the society colors of the local 
chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution. 

The main room 45 x 60 with the stage 20 x 30 was arranged as 
follows : 



35OTH ANNIVERSARY I45 

The " Committee of Co-operation from North Andover, " Hon. 
VVm. J. Dale, Jr., Miss Sarah Kittredge, Mrs. Moses T. Stevens and 
Mr. John O. Loring, assumed the whole responsibility of " An Ancient 
Parlor " which occupied the stage. The ante-rooms on either side 
g^ve access to this room. One of the incidents of the opening after- 
noon, not soon to be forgotten, was the singing of " Auld Lang S)Tie " 
by the audience, w^th the accompaniment of Madame Kittredge's 
Clementini piano brought to Andover early in the present century. 

The walls of the stage were hung with the p>ortraits of noted 
men and women of North Parish. The other portraits were hung in 
the main hall. Only two pictures of li\'ing jjeople were solicited — 
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Andover's most celebrated citizen 
of today, Prof. Edwards A. Park, D. D., LL. D., who honored the 
exhibit by a personal visit At the right of the stage was Mr. Warren 
F. Draper's collection of Andover publications, over three hundred in 
number exclusive of pamphlets, 1813 to 1888 ; show cases containing 
\'aluable manuscripts, rare books, autographs, and portions of Mr. 
Paul B. Folansbee's collection of pre-bistoric relics. On the left of 
the stage stood an ancient loom, with a quilt just completed, as 
it were, in it. Beyond this was such antique furniture as it was possi- 
ble to display. The rear of the hall was so di\nded that the two cor- 
ners were fitted up, the one as a kitchen, and the other as a bedroom. 
Articles for these rooms were jointly contributed by North Andover 
and Andover. Between these was the stage, 1 2 x 20, where Mrs. 
L. R Mason and Mrs. Catherine Allen spun flax and wool into 
yam. A memento of this work will be deposited in the Cornell Art 
and Historic Collection. Above them hung the portraits of the 
founders of the present manufacturing interest of Andover. In the 
centre were double show cases in which were exhibited samplers, china, 
silver, war relics, clothing, etc. In all some one hundred feet of cases 
were required to properly protect fragile articles. Many costumes of 
" ye ancient stj'les " were worn by young ladies from North Andover 
and Andover of which the committee have no record. 

So great was the interest in the collection and so large the atten- 
dance that at the request of leading citizens it continued of>en until 
Saturday night. Much of the success of the collection was due to the 
liberal appropriation of three hundred dollars of the Committee of 
Fifteen. 



146 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



PORTRAITS AND PICTURES OF ANDOVER 
MEN AND WOMEN. 



DEACON ALBERT ABBOTT. 

1810—82. Kept the " Hill Store " nearly fifty years. 

MRS. ABBY HALE (CUTLER) ABBOTT. 

1816 — 94. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott, as well as their children, were very 
musical. He was leader of the choir of the South Church for many 
years. 

Courtesy of the Family. 

HON. ALFRED A. ABBOTT. 

1820 — 84. Son of Dea. Amos Abbott. Lawyer in Peabody. Repre- 
sentative; senator; district attorney ; clerk of courts for Essex County. 

Courtesy of the Family. 

DANIEL ABBOTT. 

1799 — 1869. Business man. 



DANIEL P. ABBOT. 

1803 — 81. Farmer. 
EZRA ABBOT. 

1808 — 72. Physician, Canton, Mass. 



Nathan F. Abbott. 



Ezra Lincoln Abbot. 



GEORGE L. ABBOTT. 

1 82 1 — 89. Contractor and builder ; town officer. 

Miss Ellen J. Abbott. 
HENRY ABBOT. 

1772 — 1862. Harvard College, 1796. Importer and trader. Portrait 
painted in Canton, China, 1805, when he was a supercargo there on a 
Boston ship. 

Miss Charlotte S. Abbot. 
CAPTAIN JOB ABBOT. 

1782 — 1859. Farmer. 
MRS. LUCY (CHANDLER) ABBOT. 

1785 — 1872. Wife of Captain Job Abbot. 

Mrs. Nathan B. Abbott. 
JOHN ABBOT. 

1812^81. Farmer; town officer. 

Ezra Lincoln Abbot. 
MRS. NANCY (FLINT) ABBOTT. 

1777 — 1851. Wife of Enoch Abbott. 

Mrs. Sophronia (Abbott) Gray. 



aSOTH ANNIVERSARY I47 

NATHAN B. ABBOTT. 

1 816 — 85. Farmer; son of Captain Job Abbot. 

Mrs. Nathan B. Abbott. 
HON. JOHN AIKEN. 

1797 — 1867. Treasurer of manufacturing corporations; trustee of 
PhilUips Academy. 

Mrs. George Ripley. 

REV. MILTON BADGER, D.D. 

1800 — 73. Pastor of South church 1S28 — 1835. Connected with 
the American Home Missionary Society from that time until 1869. 

CAPTAIN JOSHUA BALLARD. 
1785 — 71. Town officer. 

PHEBE (ABBOT) BALLARD. 

1788 — 1870. Wife of Captain Joshua Ballard. 

Miss Mary A. Ballard. 

DEACON AMOS BLANCHARD. 

1773 — 1847. Came to Andover (from Wilton, N. H.) as clerk in Judge 
Phillips's store ; wrote many of the early Academy records ; first 
cashier of Andover Bank (1826 — ^43); many years prominent officer in 
South Church ; trustee of Abbot Academy ; father of Dr. Amos 
Blanchard of Lowell. 

Amos Blanchard. 

MARSHALL BLOOD. 

i8i I — 75. For many years proprietor of the periodical store. 

Mrs. Frank E. Gleason. 
HENRY A. BODWELL. 

1821 — 91. Business man. For many years proprietor of the Man- 
sion House. 

Mrs. Henry A. Bodwell. 
GEORGE BOUTWELL. 

1798— 1 861. Farmer. 

MRS. FANNIE (HYDE) BOUTWELL. 

1803—73. Wife of George Boutwell. 

Samuel H. Boutwell. 

J. PUTNAM BRADLEE. 

1817 — 87. Woolen manufacturer; owner of Ballard Vale Mills; 
founder of Bradlee Library and in many other ways benefactor of 
Ballard Vale. 

Trustees of the J. P. Bradlee Estate. 

GOV. SIMON BRADSTREET with autograph. 

1603 — 97. The most prominent of the early settlers. His wife, 
Anne Dudley Bradstreet (161 1 — 1658) was the first woman poet of 
America. 

Hollis R. Bailey, Cambridge. 

CAPTAIN AND MRS. BRITT. 

Taken in England before 1690. Ancestors of Mrs. William Stickney, 
daughter of Peter Young. 

Timothy Howard. 



148 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

RT. REV. PHILLIPS BROOKS, D.D., S.T.D. 

183s — 93. Bishop of Massachusetts. Owned the Phillips House in 
North Andover, and was a summer resident there many years. 

Girls' Friendly Society, Christ Church, Andover. 
JOHN BYERS. 

183 1 — 88. Merchant in New York. Benefactor of Christ church 
parish, PhilUps Academy, Memorial Hall Library, and other Andover 
interests. 

Mrs. John Byers. 

PETER SMITH BYERS, A.M. 

1827 — 56. Instructor at Phillips Academy, 1851 — 53. At the time of 

his death principal elect of the Punchard School. 

Trustees of Phillips Academy. 
ISAAC CARRUTH. 

1804 — 95. Farmer; representative. 

ISAAC S. CARRUTH. 

1840 — 82. Merchant; 43rd Mass. Regiment, Civil War. 

Mrs. Isaac S. Carruth. 
GENERAL SUMNER CARRUTH. 

1834 — 92. First Mass. Regiment, 1861 ; Colonel 35th Mass. Regiment, 

1861 ; Brev. Brig. General, 1865. 

Miss Minnie Carruth. 
DEACON HOLBROOK CHANDLER. 

1820 — 86. Farmer. Superintendent of PhiUips Academy Farm and 

buildings. 

MARGARET (BURROWS) CHANDLER. 

1820 — 91. Wife of Holbrook Chandler. 

Miss Ada B. Chandler. 
JOSEPH CHANDLER. 

1808 — 72. Fanner; town officer. 



SAMUEL CHANDLER. 

A native of Andover. 



Mrs. Peter D. Smith. 



Mrs. Darius Richardson. 



JACOB CHICKERING. 

1806 — 87. Builder; piano manufacturer. 

Courtesy of the Family. 
MOSES CLEMENT. 

181 1 — 67. Contractor and builder. 

Mrs. John H. Dean. 
JOSIAH. B. CLOUGH. 

1804 — 65. Printer. 

DORCAS (BUTTERFIELD) CLOUGH. 

1801—87. Wife of Josiah B. Clough. 

Miss Elizabeth Clough. 
JAMES H. COCHRANE. 

1815 — 95. Blacksmith in Punchard Avenue many years. 

Mrs. James H. Cochrane. 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 149 

FRANCIS COGSWELL, ESQ. 

1800 — 80. President of Boston & Maine Railroad; Overseer of Har- 
vard College ; held many other offices of trust. 

Thomas M. Cogswell, Lawrence. 
JOHN CORNELL. 

1830 — 92. Businessman; representative; founder of Cornell scholar- 
ships in Abbot and Phillips Academies ; founder of Art and Historical 
Collection in Memorial Hall Library, and donor of the Cornell Fuel 
Fund for the poor. 

Mrs. Frank E. Gleason. 
JOHN DOVE, ESQ. 

1805 — 76. With John and Peter Smith in the firm of Smith & Dove, 
flax manufacturers, and like them prominent for public benefactions. 

George W. W. Dove. 
JAMES S. EATON. 

i8i6 — 65. Instructor in Phillips Academy eighteen years; author of 
Eaton's series of Mathematics. 

George T. Eaton. 
JOHN P. FARNUM. 

1822 — 60. Mason and contractor. 

Mrs. Darius Richardson. 
CAPTAIN TIMOTHY FLAGG. 

1792 — 1833, Publisher. Soldier in War of 181 2. 

Mrs. Luther H. Sheldon. 
JOHN FLINT. 

1792 — 1873. President of Andover National Bank; treasurer of 
Savings Bank. 
LYDIA (ABBOT) FLINT. 

1797— 1847. Wife of John Flint. 

John H. Flint. 
HON. GEORGE FOSTER. 

1810 — 85. Held town offices many years, having been moderator of 
town meeting forty-five times ; representative and senator. 

George IV. Foster. 
MOSES FOSTER, ESQ. 

1821 — 95. Lawyer; cashier of Andover National Bank nearly forty 
years; representative. 

Mrs. Moses Foster. 
WILLIAM FOSTER. 

1758 — 1843. Kept a private school for boys many years, and univer- 
sally known as " Master Billy Foster." 

Francis H. Foster. 
NATHAN FRYE. 

i8o9 — 84. Manufacturer; held many offices of trust. 

Charles H. Frye. 
ISAAC E. GIDDINGS. 

1840 — 76. Manufacturer. 

Miss H. Elizabeth Giddings. 
DEACON ABRAHAM J. GOULD. 

1798 — 1868. Publisher. George Gould. 



ISO ANDOVER, MASSACHUSEtTS 

SAMUEL GRAY, ESQ. 

1803 — 80. Teacher ; afterwards secretary and president of the 

Merrimack Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 
NATHAN W. HAZEN, ESQ. 
1801 — 87. Lawyer. 

George H. Poor. 

DAVID HIDDEN. 

1784 — 1861. Carpenter; connected with the building of Andover 
educational institutions from 1809. 

MRS. MARY (CHANDLER) HIDDEN. 

1786—1855. Wife of David Hidden. 

David I. C. Hidden* 

SOLOMON H. HIGGINS. 

1803 — 62. Merchant. 

MRS. PHEBE H. (OSGOOD) HIGGINS. 

1805 — 92. Wife of Solomon H. Higgins. 

Mrs. Nathaniel J. Bartlett. 
CAPTAIN JOSEPH HOLT. 

1780 — 1860. Carpenter. 

MRS. LYDIA (JONES) HOLT. 

1780 — 1858. Wife of Captain Joseph Holt. 

Mrs. Brainerd Cummings. 
JOSEPH S. HOLT. 

1808 — 92. Printer. Connected for many years with the American 

Bible Society, New York City. 

MRS. LUCY (ABBOT) HOLT. 

i8i 1—88. Wife of Joseph S. Holt. 

Mrs. Charles C. Blunt. 

DEACON SOLOMON HOLT. 
1799 — 1883. Farmer. 

MRS. PHEBE (ABBOTT) HOLT. 

1802 — 72. Wife of Deacon Solomon Holt. 

E. Francis Holt. 

REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D.D. 

1802 — 78. Pastor of West Parish Church, 1827 — 50. Acting State 
Librarian, 1849 — 72. 

William T. Jackson. 

WILLIAM JENKINS. 

1795 — 1878. Farmer; town officer; leader in the anti-slavery move- 
ment. 

Mrs. James P. Butterfield. 

SAMUEL K. JOHNSON. 

1 82 1 — 91. Expressman to Boston many years. 

James E. Johnson. 

• Deceased. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY -" 15I 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, M.D. 

1800 — 54. Physician in Andover from 1825 until his death. 

MRS. SUSANNA (BARKER) JOHNSON. 

1806 — 79. Wife of Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

MISS ELIZABETH JOHNSON. 

1808 — 91. Sister of Dr. Johnson. 

MARY (JOHNSON) SWAIN. 

1808 — 93. Wife of Otis Swain of Wakefield. 

MRS. JOHNSON. 

While at Bradford Academy, 1825. 

ELIZA (BARKER) DWIGHT. 

Wife of Rev. H. G. O. Dwight. She died of cholera in Constantinople 
while a missionary, 1837. 

MARY ELIZABETH (JOHNSON) HERSEY. 

1835 — 95. Wife of Nathan Hersey of Spencer. 
The last three are silhouettes. 

Mrs. John C. Sears. 
ABRAHAM MARLAND. 

1772 — 1849. Woolen manufacturer. 

Courtesy of Amasa Clarke, Brook line, Mass. 
JOHN MARLAND. 

1802 — 65. Woolen manufacturer. (Photograph). 

Courtesy of Lucretia D. Marland, Chicago, III. 

WILLIAM SYKES MARLAND. 

1808 — 47. Woolen manufacturer. (Miniature). 

Mrs. William S. Marland. 
WILLIAM G. MEANS. 

1815 — 94. Manufacturer. Founder of the Means prizes for original 
declamation in Phillips Academy. 

James Means, Boston. 

SAMUEL MERRILL, ESQ. 

1786 — 1869. Lawyer. President for forty-one years of the 

Merrimack Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 
PHEBE FULLER McKEEN. 

1 83 1 — 80. First assistant in Abbot Academy. 1859 — 80. 

Miss Philena McKeen. 
HON. MARCUS MORTON, LL. D. 

1819 — 91. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. 

George H. Poor. 
HON. SAMUEL OSGOOD. 

1748 — 181 3. Fifth in descent from John Osgood of Andover, England ; 
the second settler of Andover, Mass., and gave it its name. First Post- 
master General of the United States, 1790. 

William Henry Wardwell, Brookline.* 
* Deceased. 



152 AXDOTKR, MASSACHUSETTS 

PROF. EDWARDS A. PARK, D.D., LL.D. 

Bom 180S. Professor in Andover Tbdogkal Seminaiy from 18361 

PROF. AUSTIN PHELPS, D. D. 

1820 — 90W Professor in Andover Theological Seminary tfairtyKMK 
years. 

MRS. ELIZABETH (STUART) PHELPS. 

1815—52. Wife of Pnrfessor Pbe^ 

Mrs. Pbe^ was a gifted writer. The older of tfie two tjuldrcn in the 
picture became Elizabedi Stnart Phelps Ward, the younger tlie la- 
mented Moses Stnart Phelps of Smith Ctdl^e. 
(Copies <d DagnerreoUpes). 

Mrs. Herbert D. (^EUsmbeA Stmart"^ Plulps) Ward. 

HON. JOHN PHILLIPS, LL.D. 

1719—95. With his brother, Hon. Samoel PhiDips, and his nephew. 

Judge Samael Phillips, foonder of PhiDqK Academy and <Mie of its 

trustees: founder of Phillips Exeter Academy. 

Mrs. Serau F. AUaU. 
COL. JOHN PHILLIPS. 

1776 — 1820. With his mother, Phodie Foocnift Phillips, foonder oC 

the Andover Theological Semfaiary. 

MRS. LYDIA (GORHAM) PHILUPS. 

1779—1856. Wife of CoL John Phillips. 

HIS HONOR SAMUEL PHILLIPS, LL. D. 

1752 — 1802. The most distinguished citizai of Andover. At b^ls death 
lientenant-Govemar of Massadinsetts. 

MRS. PHOEBE FOXCROFT PHILLIPS. 

1743 — 1812. Wife of His Honor Samod PhiD^js. 

Mr. WUUam Gn^ Brotts^ The Mamse, Nertk Andgver. 

DEACON DANIEL POOR. 

1740 — 1814. He built the hoose DOW owned by Geo. H. Torr. 
A pto^ieroas farmer. 

MRS. HANNAH (FRYE) POOR. 

1744 — 1824. Wife of Daniel Poor. A tfrectdearpndant<rfJohn Fr3re, 
1646. (Silhouettes). 

Mtj. AmiMsa Clarke, BrMJlime, Mats. 

HENRY POOR. 

1802 — 79. Merchant. 

JONATHAN POOR- 

1811 — 89. Whedwright. ilr:. Jctuit-kjr. Fl-ct. 

BENJAMIN HANOVER PUNCHARD. 

1799 — 1850. Woolen mannfJactnrer; founder of the Pondiard Free 
SdraoL 

Tnutees ef Ae Pmuhmrd Free SdaaL 

MAJOR JOSEPH RICE. 

1792 — 1867. Whedwrigfat; town officer. 

NmAmm F. AUaO. 



250TM aijnivErsary ■ 153 

JAMES A. ROBERTS. 

1824 — 85. Merchant 

Miss Mary Kate Roberts. 

DR. EASTMAN SANBORN. 
1800 — 59. Dentist. 

MRS. MARY C. L. (GREGORY) SANBORN. 
1807 — 83. Wife of Dr. Sanborn. 

FRANCIS GREGORY SANBORN. 

1838 — 84. An eminent naturalist and specialist in entomology. 

FAMILY MINIATURES. 

(Painted by Miss Peters.) 

Miss E. M. E. Sanborn and Miss C. H. Ada Sanborn. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH SHATTUCK. 
1794 — 1875. Fanner. 

Joseph Shattuck, Lawrence, Mass. 

JAMES SHAW. 

1822 — 81. Woolen manufacturer; connected with Ballard Vale Mills. 

Trustees of Bradlee Estate. 
ANDREW B. STIMPSON. 

1798 — 1850. Merchant. 

MRS. MARY A. (WARREN) STIMPSON. 

1807 — 88. Wife of Andrew B. Stimpson. 

Henry A. Hay ward. 

PROF. CALVIN E. STOWE, D. D. 

1802 — 86. Professor in Andover Theological Seminary, 1S52 to 1864. 

MRS. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.* 

181 2 — 96. Wife of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe. Author of " Uncle Tom's 

Cabin." 

Trustees of Abbot Academy. 
DEACON JOHN SMITH. 

Born in Brechin, Scotland, May 19, 1796. Died in Andover, Feb. 25, 

1886. Manufacturer in Andover, 1824. Distinguished for his public 

spirit and large benefactions. 

DEACON JOHN SMITH— IN 1830. 
Painted by Moses Cole. 

Joseph IV. Smith. 
DEACON PETER SMITH. 

1802 — 80. Flax and twine manufacturer. Like his brother, noted for 
his interest in public affairs and large benevolence. Trustee of Phil- 
lips and Abbot Academies. 

Peter D. Smith. 
MRS. JANET (MIDDLETON) SMITH. 

1762 — 1839. Mother of James, John and Peter Smith. 

Joseph W. Smith. 

*Died in Hartford, Ct., 1897, and buried in Andover. 



154 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

NATHANIEL SWIFT. 

1805 — 78. Merchant; president of Savings Bank ; treasurer of Abbot 
Academy. 

From the Family. 
DEACON EDWARD TAYLOR. 

1 8 1 7 — 93. Town officer ; representative ; treasurer of Phillips Academy. 

Cecil F. P. Bancroft. 
REV. JOHN L. TAYLOR, D.D. 

181 1 — 84. Pastor of the South Church, 1839 — 52 ; treasurer of Phillips 
Academy, 1852 — 68; professor in Theological Seminary, 1868 — 79. 

John Phelps Taylor. 
SAMUEL HARVEY TAYLOR, LL.D. 

1807 — 71. Principal of Phillips Academy, 1837 — 71. 

Trustees of Phillips Academy. 
HENRY GEORGE TYER. 

1812 — 82. Founder of the Tyer Rubber Company. 

Horace H. Tyer. 
MOLLY UPTON. 

She once kept a famous variety store on the corner of Salem and Por- 
ter Streets. (Silhouette.) 

David I. C. Hidden. 
SAMUEL GEORGE VALPEY. 

1819 — 63. Businessman. * 

MRS. SARAH C. (HOLT) VALPEY. 

1821 — 64. Wife of Samuel C. Valpey. 

Ezra H. Valpey. 

JOHN VAN INGEN AND DAUGHTER. 

Formerly lived in the house occupied by Judge Morton; went to Hono- 
lulu in 1852; was United States Consul to Valparaiso, Chile, for 
several years. (Photograph.) 

Miss E. M. E. Sanborn, M. D. 

CAPTAIN EDWARD WEST. 

1759 — 1851. Father-in-law of Dea. Amos Abbott. Came from Salem 
and resided in Andover many years in the old Dea. Isaac Abbot 
house, Elm Street. 

BURNHAM S. WHITE. 

181 7 — 1889. Local expressman for many years. 

Mrs. Burnham S. White. 
LUKE WORTHLEY. 

1809 — 78. Farmer. 

MRS. ELIZABETH (POOR) WORTHLEY. 
1 810 — 91. Wife of Luke Worthley. 

From the Family. 



iSOTH ANNIVERSARY t^^ 



The educational institutions and Memorial Hall Library were 
open to all throughout the week of the two hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary and the following portraits were on exhibition : 

Dates preceding names denote the period of connection with the institutions. 



PHILLIPS ACADEMY 

®peneA 1778. IncorporateA 1780. 

Present Building Erected 1865. 

REV. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1690— 1771. 

1778—1790 HON. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1717— 1790. Founder and Trustee. 

1778— 1790 HON. JOHN PHILLIPS, LL.D. 1719— 1795. Founder and Trustee. 

1778— 1804 HON. WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 1722— 1804. Donor and Trustee. 

1778— 1802 HIS HONOR SAMUEL PHILLIPS, LL.D. 1752—1802. The 
inceptor of the movement to establish the Academy; Donor and 
Trustee. 

1791— 1827 HIS HONOR WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 1750—1827. Donor and 
Trustee. 

JOHN C. PHILLIPS. Founder Latin professorship. 

1778— 1786 PRINCIPAL ELIPHALET PEARSON, LL.D. 1752— 1826. 

1786— 1795 PRINCIPAL EBENEZER PEMBERTON, LL.D. 1746— 1835. 

1795— 1810 PRINCIPAL MARK NEWMAN, M.A. 1772— 1859. 

1810— 1833 PRINCIPAL JOHN ADAMS, LL.D. 1772— 1863. 

1833— 1837 PRINCIPAL OSGOOD JOHNSON, M.A. 1803— 1837. 

1837—1871 PRINCIPAL SAMUEL H. TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D. 1807— 1871. 

1871— 1873 PRINCIPAL FREDERIC W. TILTON, M.A. 

1873— PRINCIPAL CECIL F. P. BANCROFT, LL.D. Born 1839. 

1847— 1865 JAMES S. EATON. 1816— 1865. Instructor. 

1865— 1881 PROF. GEORGE C. MERRILL. 18 — 1881. George Peabody 
Foundation. 

1851—1853 PETER SMITH BYERS. 1827— 1856. Instructor. 

1785 JOHN T. KIRKLAND, D.D., LL.D. 1770— 1840. Student. Presi- 

dent of Harvard College. 



156 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

1812 HON. SAMUEL WILLISTON. 1795— 1874. Student 

1825 OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. 1809—1895. Student 

1821 NATHANIEL P. WILLIS. 1806— 1867. Student 

1816— 1817 HON. GEORGE P. MARSH. 1801— 1882. Student 

1802— 1805 SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, LL.D. 1791— 1872. Student Inventor 
of the electric telegraph. 

1813— 1820 REV. LEONARD WOODS, JR., D.D., LL.D. 1807— 1878. Student 
President of Bowdoin College. 

1826 REV. RAY PALMER, D.D. 1808—1887. Student. Visitor. 

1826 PROF. HORATIO B. HACKETT. 1808—1875. Student 

1858— 1885 HON. ALPHEUS HARDY. 181 5— 1887. Trustee. (Bust by 
Jackson.) 

REV. W. M. ROGERS, D.D. 1806— 1851. Student 

1827— 1843 HON. WILLIAM B. BANISTER. 1773— 1853. Trustee and 
Visitor. 

HON. FREDERICK SMYTH. Born 1819. Student Benefactor. 

HON. GEORGE PEABODY. 1795— 1869. Founder of the Pea- 
body professorship. 

1858 MAJOR GENERAL W. F. BARTLETT. 1840— 1876. Student 

1865— 1867 REV. JOSEPH H. NEESIMA, D.D., LL.D. 1843—1889. Student 

1862 LIEUTENANT SAMUEL H. THOMPSON. Student Died in 

the War of the Rebellion. 

CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR. (Copy of the Ludovisi bust.) 

SAMUEL H. TAYLOR, LL.D. (Bust by Launt Thompson.) 



ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

^>ene& tSOS. 
Brechin Hall Library. 

MADAM PHOEBE FOXCROFT PHILLIPS. 1743 — 1812. 
Founder. 

COL. JOHN PHILLIPS. 1776— 1820. Founder. 

SAMUEL ABBOT, ESQ. 1730—1812. Founder. 

HON. WILLIAM BARTLET. 1748— 1841. Associate Founder. 

MOSES BROWN, ESQ. 1742— 1827, Associate Founder. 

Note. It is deeply regretted that the institution has no portrait of Hon. John 
Norris, 1751 — 1808, the other associate ft inder 



2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 157 

1808—1809 PROF. ELIPHALET PEARSON, LL.D, 1752—1826. 

1808— 1846 PROF. LEONARD WOODS, D.D, 1774— 1854. Bust and por- 
trait 

1809— 181 1 PROF. EDWARD DORR GRIFFIN, D.D. 1770— 1837. 

1810— 1848 PROF. MOSES STUART, M.A. 1780—1852. 

1829— 1853 PROF. RALPH EMERSON, D.D. 1787— 1863. 

1836— PROF. EDWARDS AMASA PARK, D.D., LL.D. Born 1808. 

Busts by Jackson and Launt Thompson. 

1837— 1852 PROF. BELA BATES EDWARDS, D.D. 1802-1852. 

1848—1890 PROF. AUSTIN PHELPS, D.D. 1820— 1890. 

1852—1879 PROF. JOHN LORD TAYLOR, D.D iSii— 1884. Also Pastor 
of the South Church and Treasurer of Phillips Academy. 

MRS. CAROLINE (PHELPS) TAYLOR. 1S16— 1868. Wife of 
Prof. Taylor. 

1807—1844 SAMUEL FARRAR, M.A. 1773— 1864. Librarian and Treasurer. 

1826—1837 HON. WILLIAM REED. 1777— 1837. Visitor and Benefactor. 

1831— 1850 HIS HONOR SAMUEL T. ARMSTRONG. Trustee. 

HENRY WINKLEY. Benefactor. 

JOHN SMITH. Benefactor. 

JOHN DOVE. Benefactor. 

1870— 1880 PETER SMITH. Trustee and Benefactor. The Messrs. Smith and 
Dove, in addition to other gifts built Brechin Hall, named in honor 
of their native town. 

REV. JOSHUA HUNTINGTON. Pastor of Old South Church, 
Boston, 1808 — 1819. 

SAMUEL A. HITCHCOCK. Benefactor. 



ABBOT ACADEMY 

lncorpoTate& 1829. 

MRS. SARAH ABBOT. Wife of Nathaniel Abbot and daughter of 
•George Abbot. 1762 — 1848. Founder. 

1828—1878 REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D. D. 1802—1878. Trustee. 

1859— 1892 MISS PHILENA McKEEN. Born 1822. Principal. 

1859—1880 MISS PHEBE FULLER McKEEN. 1831—1880. First Asssistant. 

1851— PROF. EDWARDS A. PARK, D. D., LL. D. Born 1808. Trustee. 

1851—1878 NATHANIEL SWIFT, ESQ. 1805— 1878. Trustee and Treasurer. 



158 AXDOTER, MASSACHUSETTS 

PUNCHARD FREE SCHOOL 

fioae«» 1851. 

Si "'WH—P'^* Kai MMMif i8$i. BuKJuiiD^ 18GB; K— nm* at tsk Kuvmuk or thb Xowv, iS/i. 

BENJAMIN HANO\^R PUNCHARD. 1799— 185a Foonder. 

1858— 1870 > PRINCIPAL WILLIAM GLEASON GOLDSMITH, M. A- Bom 
1871 — 1885 J 1832. 



MEMORIAL HALL LIBRARY 

^6t■M^5fac^ ISn. 9pata 1S73. 

HON. AMOS ABBOT. 1786— 186S. Merchant; State Rq>resenta- 
tive: State Senator; Member of Congress, Fefamarj 15, 1844, to 
March 3. 1849. 

HOBART CL.\RKE, ESQ. 1780— 1870^ Lavjer; Postmaster; and 
leading dtlieo. 

WALTER L RAYMOND. 1846—1864. Stodtait. Died as a pris- 
oner of war at Salisbury, N. C, on Christmas Dar. 

JOHN SMITH, ESQ. 1796—18861 Promoter and bugest bendEac- 
tor of Memorial Hall ^lid Libiaiy. 

MEMORIAL TABLET. Widi names of die fif^4wo soldiers who 

died durinf the War of the RebdlioD. 1861 — 1865. 



CHURCH EXHIBIT 

Dates Show Dcratiox of Pastorate. 
NORTH PARISH. "The Church at Andover." 

M. IMS. 



REV. JOHN WOODBRIDGE. 1645— 1647. 
REV. FRANCIS DANE. 1648—1697. 
REV. THOMAS BARNARD. 1682— 171& 
REV. JOHN BARNARD. 1719— 1757. 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I 59 

REV. WILLIAM SYMMES, D. D. 1758— 1807. 

REV. BAILEY LORING. 1810—1850. 

REV. FRANCIS C. WILLIAMS. 1850— 1856, 

REV. CHARLES C. VINAL. 1857—1870. 

REV. JOHN H. CLIFFORD. 1871— 1883. 

REV. CHARLES NOYES. 1884— 

Church Buildings erected 1645, 1669, 1709. These were probably located 
near the old burying ground; 1753, 1836 at present location. Parsonage erected 
during Mr. Vinal's pastorate, through the generosity of William Johnson, Esq., 
destroyed by fire 1870. Rebuilt 1871. 



SOUTH PARISH CHURCH 

®rgani3e^ October 17, t7tt. 

REV. SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 1711— 1771. 

REV. JONATHAN FRENCH. 1772— 1809. 

REV. JUSTIN EDWARDS, D. D. 1812— 1827. 

REV. MILTON BADGER, D. D. 1828— 1835. 

REV. LORENZO L. LANGSTROTH, 1838— 1839. 

REV. JOHN L. TAYLOR, D. D. 1839— 1852. 

REV. CHARLES SMITH. 1852— 1853. 

REV. GEORGE MOOAR. 1855— 1861. 

REV. CHARLES SMITH. 1861— 1876. 

REV. JAMES H. LAIRD. 1877— 1883. 

REV. JOHN J. BLAIR. 1884— 1892. 

REV. FRANK R. SHIPMAN. 1893— 

Church Buildings erected 1719, 1734, 1789, i860. Parsonage 1709, sold 
about 181 1. 



WEST PARISH CHURCH 

©rganijes Becember 5, 1826. 

REV. SAMUEL C. JACKSON, D. D. 1827—1850. 
REV. CHARLES H. PIERCE. 1850—1855. 



l6o ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

REV. JAMES H. MERRILL. 1856—1879. 

REV. AUSTIN H. BURR. 1880— 1885 

REV. FREDERIC W. GREENE. 1885—1895. 

REV. ROBERT A. MACFADDEN. 1896— 

Church building erected 1826. Parsonage built by Dr. Jackson and after- 
wards bought by the parish. 



TRINITARIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

NORTH ANDOVER 
^ganijeb 9«ptembet 3, 1834. 

REV. JESSE PAGE. 1835— 1843. 

REV. WILLIAM T. BRIGGS. 1846—1855. 

REV. LEVI H. COBB. 1857— 1864. 

REV. BENJAMIN F. HAMILTON. 1865— 1871. 

REV. RUFUS C. FLAGG. 1872— 1877. 

REV. GEORGE PIERCE. 1878— 1881. 

REV. H. H. LEAVITT. 1882—1893. 

REV. HENRY E. BARNES, D. D. 1893— 

First church building at the Centre erected 1834; the second, at present 
location, Machine shop village, 1865. Parsonage presented to the society by 
Hon. George L. Davis, 1873. 



CHRIST CHURCH, ANDOVER 

®cgamje& Bugust e, t835. 

REV. SAMUEL FULLER, D. D. 1837— 1843. 

REV. GEORGE PACKARD, D. D. (Minister). 1843— 1845. 

REV. HENRY WATERMAN. 1845— 1849. 

REV. SAMUEL FULLER, D. D. 1849— 1859. 

REV. BENJAMIN B. BABBITT. 1860—1868. 

REV. JAMES THOMSON. 1869— 1874. 

REV. MALCOLM DOUGLAS, D. D. 1875— 1884. 



35OTH ANNIVERSARY 161 

REV. LEVERETT BRADLEY. 1884—1888. 

REV. FREDERIC PALMER. 1888— 

Church erected 1837; burned 1886; rebuilt 18S6 by Mr. John Byers"in 
memory of his parents and brother." Rectory erected and given by Mr. 
Abraham Marland and family in 1845. 



FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

®T9anijeA /Da:s 7, 1846. 

REV. ELIJAH C. WINCHESTER. 1S46— 1848. 

REV. SHERLOCK BRISTOL. 1848— 1849. 

REV. WILLIAM B. BROWN. 1850—1855. 

REV. CALEB FISHER. 1855— 1859. 

REV. STEPHEN C. LEONARD. 1859— 1865. 

REV. JAMES P. LANE. 1866— 1870. 

REV. EDWARD S. WILLIAMS. 1870—1872. 

REV. GEORGE F. WRIGHT. 1872— 1881. 

REV. FRANK BARROWS MAKEPEACE. 1S81— r888. 

REV. FREDERIC A. WILSON. 1889— 

Church building (formerly the Methodist Episcopal church located on Main 
Street, near Morton) removed to present location 1S50 by John Smith who pre- 
sented it with other property to the church in 1859. Parsonage built 1855. 



ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH 

Bn&over iBiesion commenceb bs 1Rev, fatbet ®'2)onnell, 1850. 

REV. MICHAEL GALLAGHER, O. S. A. 1862— 1869. 
REV. AMBROSE A. MULLEN, O. S. A. 1869—1876. 
REV. MAURICE J. MURPHY, O. S. A. 1876— 1880. 
REV. J. J. RYAN, O. S. A. 1880—1894. 
REV. THOMAS A. FIELD, O. S. A. 1894— 

Church on Central Street, 1852; Essex Street, 1879; burned 1894; rebuilt 
1895. Rectory purchased 1870; removed to site of burned church, 1895. 

The church in Ballardvale was built in 1876, and that of Wilmington in 
1880, both of which are mission churches attended from Andover. 



1 62 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

All of the above churches resjxjnded to the request for pictures of pastors an \ 
buildings so far as was jxjssible. Other churches in Andover are or were : Church 
of the Theological Seminar)-, established 1816; reorganized, 1865. This church has 
as pastors the Professors of the Seminar)-. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, organized 1829; disbanded 1841. 

Baptist Church, organized Oct. 3, 1832. 

Universalist Society-, organized Nov. 15, 1837. Church built 1838. Services 
were continued until 1S65. In 1879 ^^7 were renewed for a short time. 

Methodist Episcopal Church (North Andover) organized 1845. 

Emanuel Church (Ballardvale) 1846 — 1849: discontinued. 

Union Congregational Church, Ballardvale; organized 1850. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Ballardvale; organized 1850. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



ABBOTT, Family of Albert 

ABBOTT, Family of Alfred A. 

ABBOTT, Dr. and Mrs. Charles E. (Frances Whipple) 

ABBOTT, Miss Charlotte Helen 

ABBOT, Miss Charlotte S. 

ABBOTT, Miss Ellen J. 

ABBOTT, Mrs. Charles M. (Emily Chickering) 

ABBOT, Ezra Lincoln 

ABBOT, George, Maiden 

ABBOTT, George T. 

ABBOTT, Mrs. James Alfred (Mary E. Jones) 

ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. John B. (Dorcas C. Woodbridge) 

ABBOT, John Lovejoy 

ABBOTT, Joseph 

ABBOTT, Mrs. J. Thompson (Betsey Kershaw) 

ABBOTT, Mrs. Moses (Tryphenia Bowman) 

ABBOTT, Mrs. Moses B. (Susan E. Dowding) 

ABBOTT, Mrs. Nathan B. (Elizabeth L. Noyes) 

ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan F. (Margaret Smith) 

ABBOTT, Mrs. Sereno T. (Sarah French) 

ABBOTT, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. (Elizabeth Riley) 

ABBOT, William 

ANDREWS, M. Christopher 

BAILEY, Hollis R., Cambridge 

BAILEY, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel H. (Elizabeth B. Abbott) 

BAKER, Mr. and Mrs. George F. (Charlotte Blanchard) 



25OTH ANNIVERSARY 163 

BALLARD, Miss Mary A. 

BALDWIN, Mrs. Curtis M. (Josephine Harding) 
BANCROFT, Rev. C. F. P. 
BARNARD, Mrs. Henry W. (Mabel Paradise) 
BARNARD, Mr. and Mrs. J. Warren (Eliza Foster) 
BARTLETT, Gen. William F. Post G. A. R. 
BARTLETT, Mrs. Nathaniel J. (Ellen M. Higgins) 
BEAN, John M. 

BERRY, Mrs. J. Warren (Anna J. Clement) 
BLANCHARD, Amos 

BLUNT, Mrs. Charles C. (Lucy Josephine Holt) 
BLUNT, Miss Lois M., North Andover. 
BODWELL, Mrs. Henry A. (Emma A. Kimball) 
BOUTWELL, Samuel H. 
BOYNTON, Henry 
BROOKS, William Gray, Boston. 
BROWN, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin (Susan Burr) 
BROWN, Mr. and Mrs. George T. (Hannah M. Flint) Maiden. 
BROWNELL, Mrs. Henry (Kate C. Meader) 
BUCK, Miss Alice 
BURRILL, Miss Lucy 

BUTTERFIELD, Mrs. James P. (Elizabeth B. Jenkins) 
BUTTERFIELD, Charles, North Andover. 
BURTT, Miss Angelina 
BYERS, Mrs. John (Esther H. Smith) 
CALDWELL, Albert W. 
CALDWELL, George R. 
CALLAHAN, Mrs. Robert (Mary A. Loring) 
CARPENTER, Rev. Charles C. 
CARRUTH, Mrs. Isaac S. (Nellie Richardson) 
CARRUTH, Miss Minnie S. 

CARTER, Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. (Sarah N. McLawlin) 
CARTER, Miss Emily 
CHANDLER, Miss Ada B. 
CHANDLER, Miss Frances E. 
CHANDLER, Miss Laura M. 

CHANDLER, Mr. and Mrs. George W. (Sarah Jane Faulkner) 
CHEEVER, Miss Sarah S.* 
CHICKERING, Family of Jacob 
CHICKERING, Otis 

CLARKE, Mr. and Mrs. Amasa (Frances Sturtevant) 
CLOUGH, Miss Elizabeth 
COCHRANE, Mrs. James H. (Sarah Town) 
COGSWELL, Thomas M., Lawrence. 
CUMMINGS, Mrs. Brainerd (Sarah Holt) 
CUMMINGS, Charles O. 
• Deceased. 



164 ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

CUMMINGS, Mrs. Daniel (Hannah A. Holt) 

DALE, William J., M. D. 

DALE, Hon. William J., Jr.* 

DANE, George 

DAVIS, Mrs. William W. (Abby R. Worthley) 

DAVIS, Mrs. Warren (Mary A. SpofEord) 

DEAN Mrs. John H. (Caroline L. Clement) 

DEMERIT, Miss Ellen, Lawrence. 

DOWNS, Mrs. Samuel M. (Annie Sawyer) 

DOVE, George W. W. 

DRAPER, Warren F. 

EAMES, Mr. and Mrs. Plato (Elizabeth M. Valpey) 

EAMES, Mr. and Mrs. L. Holmes (Ellen Eames) 

EATON, George T. 

ELLIOT, Mrs. John P. (Anna Kittredge) 

ELLIS, Miss Ellen G. 

EMERSON, Mrs. Hovey (Ruth Hatch) 

FIELD, Rev. Thomas A., O. S. A. 

FINDLEY, Mrs. WiUiam F. (Laura Bean) 

FLINT, Miss Emily E., Maiden 

FLINT, Miss Gertrude L. 

FLINT, George E. 

FLINT, Mr. and Mrs. John H. (Frances A. Tyer) 

FLINT, Miss NeUie F. 

FLINT, Mrs. N. Farrington (Hannah A. Harding) 

FOLANSBEE, Paul B. 

FOSTER, Francis Homer 

FOSTER, Frank M. 

FOSTER, George W., Esq. 

FOSTER, Mrs. Moses (CaroHne Hall) 

FOSTER, Mrs. William H. (Rhoda J. Luscomb) 

FRENCH, Miss Lucy A. 

FRYE, Charles H. 

GIDDINGS, Miss H. Elizabeth 

GLEASON, Mrs. Frank E. (Mary E. Blood) 

GOLDSMITH, Miss Bessie P. 

GOLDSMITH, George 

GOLDSMITH, Mr. and Mrs. William G. (Joanna B. Holt) 

GOULD, George 

GRAY, Miss Margaret E. 

GRAY, Mrs. David (Sophronia Abbot) 

GREEN, Edward, North Andover 

GUNNISON, Miss Abiah 

GUNNISON, Miss Jane 

GUTTERSON, Mrs. Myron E. (Annie Elizabeth Tyler) 

HAYWARD, Henry A. 

* Deceased 



2SOTH ANNIVERSARY ' 165 

HIDDEN, David I. C* 

HIGGINS, Frank P. 

HIGGINS, Mrs. Henry C. (Eliza Abbott) 

HINCKS, Miss Annie Perry 

HOLT, Charles C* 

HOLT, Mr. and Mrs. E. Francis (Parthenia P. Boutwell) 

HOLT, George F. 

HOLT, John M. 

HOLT, Jonathan E. 

HOWARD, Lewis T., Boston 

HOWARD, Timothy 

HOWELL, Mrs. John (Mary Jane Allen) 

HUNKINS, Mrs. Frank (Maria Wardwell), HaverhiU 

HUNT, James W. 

JACKSON, WiUiam T. 

JAQUITH, Mrs. Newton (Laura A. Greene) 

JENKINS, Mr. and Mrs. E. Kendall (Nancy Jenkins) 

JENKINS, Mrs. Ebenezer (Sally Russell)* 

JENKINS, John B. 

JENKINS, Mr. and Mrs. William S. (Rebecca F. Farnum) 

JOHNSON, James Edward 

JOHNSON, Mrs. Samuel K. (Lucy A. Sargent) 

JONES, Samuel M. 

KIMBALL, Mrs. Walter H. (Mary E. Gage) 

KITTREDGE, Miss Hannah 

KITTREDGE, Miss Sarah 

KNOWLES, Mrs. Winslow L. (Henrietta Cheever) 

LADD, Mrs. John W. (Eliza D. Wardwell) 

LEWIS, Mrs. H. Bradford (Laura M. Hewins) 

LINCOLN, Miss Emma J. 

LORING, Mrs. John R. (Sarah M. Barker) 

LOWE, Mrs. Albert W. (Mabel F. Smith) 

MANNING, Albert S. 

MARLAND, Mr. and Mrs. Abraham (Elizabeth C. Lord) 

MARLAND, Charles H. 

MARLAND, George Abbott 

MARLAND, Harold Webb 

MARLAND, Miss Helen 

MARLAND, Miss Lucretia D., Chicago, 111. 

MARLAND, Mr. and Mrs. William (Salome Jane Abbott) 

MARLAND, Mrs. William S. (Sarah Northey) 

MCKEEN, Miss Philena 

MERRILL, Mrs. James H. (Lucia Wadsworth Griswold) 

MERRILL, Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Selah (Adelaide Brewster Taylor) 

MERRIMACK MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 

MORRILL, Miss Mary E. 

♦Deceased. 



[56 ANTX)\'ER, MASSACHUSETTS 

NEWMAN, Charles H. 

NICHOLS, Mrs. John, Lawrence 

NORCROSS, Mrs. O. N. ( Sibley) Worcester. Mass. 

OSGOOD. Mrs. Isaac F. (Lora M. White) North Andover 

PALMER, Rev. Frederic 

PARK, Miss Agnes 

PARK, Rev. Edwards A., D.D., LL.D. 

PARKER, Miss Florence A. 

PARKER, George A. 

PASHO, Mrs. Henry F. (France? A. Richardson)* 

POOR, P. Edward, Lawrence 

POOR, Mr. and Mrs. George H. (Sarah Helen Mariand) 

POOR, Mrs. Jonathan (Catherine Marston) 

REA, Mrs. Jasper (Luc)- Woodcock) 

REED. Mrs. Edwin (Emily P. Fellows) 

RICHARDS, Mrs. Thomas (Mary Ann Stanley) 

RICHARDSON, Miss Abbie A. 

RICHARDSON, Mrs. Darius Qulia A. Famum) 

RICHARDSON, Miss Hannah Maria 

RICHARDSON, Mrs. Wesley (Lucy A. RusseU) 

RIPLEY, Mr. and Mrs. George (M^- E. Aiken) 

ROBERTS, Miss Mary Kate 

ROBINSON, Mrs. Addison M. (Clara Chandler) 

ROGERS, Miss Alice 

ROPES, Rev. William L. 

RUSSELL, Mr. and Mrs. Henry (Ida Gonld) 

RUSSELL, Miss Martha A. 

SANBORN, Miss C. H. Ada 

SANBORN, Miss Emma M. E., M.D. 

SEARS, Mrs. John C. (Susan M. Johnson) 

SHATTL'CK, Joseph, Lawrence 

SH.\W, Mrs. Da\-id (Lucy Hayward) 

SHELDON, Mrs. Luther H. (Sarah H. Flagg) 

SHIPMAN, Rev. Frank R. 

SMITH HALL, Abbot Academy 

SMITH, Mrs. B. Frank (Ella S. Jenkins) 

SMITH, Mrs. J. H. D. (Anne Eliza Stevens) 

SMITH, John L. 

SMITH, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph W. (Fannie S. Donald) 

SMITH, Mr. and Mrs. Peter D. (Abby J. Chandler) 

SMITH, Mrs. Thomas (Laura F. Russell) 

STEVENS, Mrs. Horace N. (Anna M. Phipps) 

STEVENS, John 

STEVENS, Miss Mary O. 

STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Moses T. (Charlotte E. Osgood) 

STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel (Elizabeth Priscilla White) 

•Deceased. 



2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 167 

STEVENS, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel D. (Lucy Amelia Abbot.) 
SWIFT, Family of Nathaniel 
TAYLOR, Prof. John Phelps 
THOMSON, Mrs. T. Dennie (Abby C. Locke) 
TILTON, Mrs. James S. (Rebecca A. Hobbs) 
TOWLE, Dr. Nathaniel C. 
TRUSTEES of Abbot Academy 
TRUSTEES of J. P. Bradlee Estate 
TRUSTEES of Phillips Academy 
TRUSTEES of Punchard Free School. 
TVER, Mr. and Mrs. Horace H. (Catherine S. Buss) 
UPTON, Augustus A. 
UPTON, Miss M. Lizzie 

VALPEY, Mr. and Mrs. Ezra A. (May Adelaide Mayberry) 
WARD, Mrs. Herbert D. (Elizabeth Stuart Phelps) 
WARDWELL, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F. (Hannah E. Wells) 
WARDWELL, Miss Octavia S.* 
WARDWELL, WiUiam H.* Brooldine, Mass. 
WHIPPLE, Mrs. Ashley C. (Frances A. Hoyt) 
WHITE, Mrs. Burnham S. (Mary Sawyer)* 
WHITE, Charles L. 
WILSON, Rev. Frederic A. 
WITHAM, John B. 
WORTHLEY, Miss Phebe M. 
'Deceased. 



LIST OF HOUSES AND SITES REPORTED TO THE SUB- 
COMMITTEE ON LOAN COLLECTION AND 
HISTORIC SITES. 



Homestead of ^George Abbot, the emigrant, occupied by eight lineal generations 
of the family. The "old red house" demolished in 1862. The original garrison 
house stood in the enclosure at the rear. (Central Street; owned by John H. Abbot) 

Homestead of 'George Abbot, settled about 1678; residence of his descendants 
to the seventh generation. Present house about one hundred and sixty years old. 
(John Lovejoy Abbot's and N. J. Bartlett's, Central Street.) 

The James Abbot house. ^Benjamin Abbot settled here in 1686 ; homestead in 
possession of seven generations of the family. On this estate is the famous " Indian 
Ridge," studied in the first half of this century by Sir Charles Lyell and President 
Hitchcock; used in 1835 by the students for an abolition meeting when churches 
and schools were closed to them ; and again the scene of geological researches by 
Prof. George F. Wright, D. D., in 1875. (Timothy Abbot's, Mineral Street, near 
railroad bridge.) 



1 68 ancover, Massachusetts 

Garrison house and homestead of ^Timothy Abbot (the boy who was captured 
by the Indians) and his descendants to the eighth generation, from 1690. (Samuel 
H. Bailey's, off South Main Street.) 

Homestead of 'Thomas Abbot, settled in 1697. Owned by Dr. Symonds Baker 
and descendants from 1797. (George F. Baker's, off Mineral Street.) 

One of the oldest houses in the village; the residence for many years, from 1796, 
of Squire John Kneeland, a surviving patriot of the Revolution, who made the ad- 
dress of welcome to Lafayette in 1825. (Mrs. Sarah N. Marland's, Chestnut Street, 
corner Central.) 

An old Abbot house. Deeded to Capt. John Lee from Salem in 1779. Hon. 
Hobart Clark, projector and first president of Boston & Maine Railroad, resided 
here forty years. (Plato Eames's, Elm Street.) 

Deacon *Isaac Abbot's tavern. Said to be over two hundred years old. Wash- 
ington breakfasted here, Nov. 5, 1789; Miss Priscilla, nineteen years old, mended his 
gloves and received her reward! First post-ofifice in Andover, 1795. Captain Edward 
West from Salem resided here early in the century. (Samuel B. Locke's, Elm Street.) 

Site of the "ministry house " of Old South Church, built 1710, demolished 1891. 
Residence for sixty years of Rev. Samuel Phillips, first pastor, 1711-1771; for 
thirty-six years of Rev. Jonathan French, second pastor, 1 772-1809. (Mrs. John 
Byers's, School Street, corner Central.) 

A very old house ; formerly stood on the opposite side of the street ; sold to 
William Hawley in 1803. Rev. Dr. William Goodell, the famous missionary, 
boarded here in 181 1. Said by Bellows, the artist, to be the most picturesque house 
in Andover. (A. M. Davis's, Salem Street.) 

Old Foster homestead. Oldest part of present house about one hundred and 
fifty years old. " Master William Foster " kept a family school for boys here many 
years. (Central Street; owned by Francis Homer Foster.) 

Jacob Osgood house. Birthplace of Rev. David Osgood, D. D., born 1747, 
died 1822, resident of Medford, Mass. At the south door of this house, James Otis, 
the patriot, was killed by lightning, May 23, 1783. (Joseph Bourdelais's, Osgood 
District.) 

Old Chandler homestead, with well sweep. fMrs. Moses Abbott's, South Main 
Street.) 

Residence of Deacon Daniel Poor, built about 1763. Afterwards residence of 
Francis Cogswell, Esq., and Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry. (George H. Torr's, Central 
Street, corner PhiUips.) 

Site of Judge Phillips's first house in South Parish; his residence until 1778; 
then that of Principals Pearson, Pemberton and Newman ; of Dr. Leonard Woods ; 
part of Harvard College Library brought here in 1775 when this site belonged to the 
estate of George Abbot, Esq. ; constitution of Phillips Academy written here, 1778 ; 
first lectures of Theological Seminary delivered here, 1808. Used as " Commons " 
for several years previous to 1886. (Phillips Street, between Latin dormitories and 
Farrar House.) 



250TH ANNIVERSARY ' 169 

Site of Lieutenant-Governor Phillips's mansion house, 1 782-1802; the "Mansion 
House " from 1812 to its destruction by fire, 1887. Washington, Lafayette, Jackson, 
Webster and many other eminent guests were entertained here. (Main Street.) 

The "Berry House"; the Blunt tavern in the time of the Revolution; after- 
wards owned by Ezra Holt. Captain Isaac Blunt brought home the elm tree when 
a sapling and set it out here about 1790. (Miss Dora S. Berry's, Salem Street.) 

Old homestead of Nicholas Holt or his early descendants. In a record dated 
"ye 8 off ist month 167I" the words are used "near a highway going up to his 
house" — an unusual form of expression. Tradition says the house now in existence 
was that of the first Holt. From Prospect Hill, near by, stood citizens of Andover, 
June 17, 1775, watching the flames rising from the burning of Charlestown. (Miss 
Sarah L. Sawyer's, Holt District.) 

House used by Major Abbot Walker early in the century. Residence for many 
years of Rev. Dr. Justin Edwards, third pastor of Old South Church, president of 
Theological Seminary, temperance reformer and author. (M. Christopher Andrews', 
Main Street.) 

The " Adams House ; " occupied by Dr. Eliphalet Pearson, 1806-1809, and by 
Principal John Adams, 1810-1833. Built 1805. (Professor Graves's, Salem Street.) 

Residence of Professors Murdock, Emerson, Shedd, Smyth; and in 1824-25 of 
Oliver Wendell Holmes — "The school boy's chosen home." Built by Mark New- 
man about 1809. (Professor Smyth's, Main Street.) 

The " President's house ; " built by William Bartlet, 1809; residence, successive- 
ly, of Rev. Dr. Griffin, Rev. Dr. Porter, Rev. Dr. Justin Edwards, Professor Austin 
Phelps; the birthplace of missionary, education, temperance and tract societies. 
Elizabetli Stuart Phelps used the small building to the south (formerly a summer 
house in the garden) as a study. (Professor Moore's, Main Street.) 

Residence of Samuel Farrar, treasurer of Phillips Academy for over fifty years; 
removed here from Main Street. 1881 ; Madame Phoebe Foxcroft Phillips, wife of 
Judge Phillips, earnest partner in all his philanthrophic work, and after his death one 
of the founders of the Theological Seminary-, died here in 1812. Built 181 1. 

" Where is the patriarch time could hardly tire, 
The good old, wrinkled, immemorial Squire ? 
An honest treasurer, like a black-plumed swan, 
Not every day our eyes may look upon." 

Holmes's PHiLure Academy Centennial Pokm. 
(M. A. Roberts's, Phillips Street.) 

Site of the Ser linary commons-house built by Madame Phoebe Phillips and Col. 
John Phillips, 1809; Nehemiah Abbot and Joshua Emery were the early stewards. 
Removed to corner of Main and Morton Streets about 1846. (Rear of Phillips Hall, 
Seminary grounds.) 

Residence of Prof. Moses Stuart, " the fatlier of Biblical Science in America," 
to 1852; afterwards of Professor J. Henry Thayer. Built 1810. (Professor Harris's, 
Main Street.) 



170 ANDOVER MASSACHUSETTS 

Residence of Samuel Abbot, Esq., liberal benefactor to the Old South Church 
and the Theological Seminary, died 1812. Built in the latter part of last century 
from design of manor house brought from England. Afterwards the residence of 
Mark Newman, Samuel Lawrence and Hiram W. French. (Mrs. George W. 
Cobum's, Central Street.) 

Residence of Dr. Leonard Woods to 1854; afterwarks of Professors Barrows, 
Mead, Gulliver; built 181 6. (Mrs. Professor Pease's, Main Street) 

The Locke tavern. Built by Major Daniel Cummings, 1818: kept by James 
Locke about 1823-1840; St Matthews Lodge of Masons organized here 1823; 
meeting of projectors of Abbot Academy, 1828; residence of N. W. Hazen, Esq., 
for many years. (Albert S. Manning's, Main Street) 

Residence of Deacon Amos Blanchard, first cashier of Andover Bank; built 
1819; after his death in 1847 owned by Deacon Edward Taylor until his death in 
1893. (Dr. Selah Merrill's, Main Street.) 

The "Samaritan House," built by the "Samaritan Society" in 1824; residence 
of Rev. Dr. Elias Cornelius, 1826-1829; of Principal Osgood Johnson, 1833-1837, 
afterwards of his widow; of Professor Calvin E. Stowe, 1852-1853. Mrs. Stowe 
wrote here the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. (Dr. Bancroft's, Chapel Avenue, corner 
Bartlet Street) 

The "stone house," built 1828 as a carpenter's shop for use of theological stu- 
dents; residence of Professor Stowe, 1 853-1 864; Mrs. Stowe wrote here several of 
her later works; used for several years as a Seminary boarding-house ; the "Mansion 
House" from 1887. (E. P. Hitchcock's, Chapel Avenue.) 

"America house." In the northeast front room of this house in February, 1832, 
Samuel F. Smith, a student in the Theological Seminary, wrote "America." 

" My country ! 'tis ef thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 
Of thee I sing I " 

(Mrs. Samuel W. Blunt's, Main Street) 

Double brick house built 1829; residence of Prof. Edward Robinson and of Dr. 
Samuel H. Taylor, 1837-1871. (W. R. Newton and Mrs. C. W. Tarbox, Main Street) 

Brick house, built 1833; residence of Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Skinner, and from 
1836 of Prof. Edwards A. Park. (Main Street) 

Residence of Prof. Bela B. Edwards, 1840-1852; Mrs. Edwards' young ladies' 
school (the "Nunnery,") 1852-1864. (Prof. Ryder's, Main Street.) 

Joseph Richardson house. In the front of this house, then occupied by Stephen 
Dinsmore, the Free Church was organized. May 7, 1846, as a protest against American 
slaverj'. (Main Street corner East Chestnut) 

Site of the first manufactory of Andover, Judge Phillips's powder mill, built in 
1776, which furnished the first powder to the American army. After the Revolution 
it was turned into a paper mill. (Near the old woolen mill, Stevens's Mill, Marland 
Village.) 



250TH ANNIVERSARY I'JI 

Site of Judge Phillips's store; carried on 1 791-1797 by Hon. Jacob Abbot, 
great grandfather of Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbot ; afterwards for many years the "com- 
mons" for Academy students ; removed to upper Morton street, 1880. Present house 
occupied by President Tucker 1880-1893. (Main Street, corner Phillips.) 

Site of brick store, occupied for many years by Henry Abbot and his son Henry 
W. Abbot. In the hall over this store the "Peace Supper" was held in 1815. 
(Carter's Block, Main Street.) 

First train of cars on the Andover & Wilmington Railroad, now the Boston & 
Maine, arrived at this depot August 6, 1836. Location removed 1847. (Walsh's 
plumbing shop, Essex Street) 

The old "hill store," built about 1810 by Mark Newman; kept by D. and J. 
Shipman, and for nearly fifty years by Deacon Albert Abbott. Printing office of 
Flagg & Gould, 1813-1832; first tracts of the Tract Society and the first temperance 
paper, the "Journal of Humanity," printed here. 

Printing house of Flagg, Gould & Newman, of Allen, Morrill & Wardwell, and 
of W. F. Draper. They published in all nearly four hundred text books, commen- 
taries and many other valuable works. Built 1832. (Seminary boarding-house. 
Main Street.) 

First car shop of the Boston & Maine Railroad. First cars made here in 1835 
by Capt. Nathaniel Whittier and M. Christopher Andrews. ("Crystal Palace," 
Pearson Street.) 

Site of first Phillips Academy, 1 778-1 786, and of the residence of Squire Samuel 
Farrar, 1811-1864, now on Phillips Street. (Professor Churchill's, Main Street, 
corner Phillips.) 

Site of second Phillips Academy, built 1785, burned 1818. (Main Street, corner 
Salem.) 

Brick Academy, Salem Street; built i8i8, Bulfinch, architect. "The classic 
hall" in which Oliver Wendell Holmes spoke his Exhibition Ode, 1825. Academy 
Gymnasium, 1 867-1 896. Burned June 23, 1896. Restored after original design, 
1897. 

Site of Stone Academy, 1 830-1 864. (Main Street, corner Chapel Avenue.) 

Site of the Universalist Church, 1 839-1 865, used afterwards for a few years as a 
town grammar school. (Dr. J. F. Richards's, Main Street, corner Punchard Avenue, 
formerly " Universalist Court") 

Original site of Abbot Academy building. Built 1829. Removed to present 
location, 1888. (School Street.) 

Smith Hall, built 1854. Original location near the center of the front of Draper 
Hall. (School Street) 

Site of the "Town School." Removed to Main Street, remodeled, and now 
used as a store by Ovid Chapman. "Chap's." (Corner of School and Central 
Streets, south of Christ Church.) 



172 AKDOrER UASSACHITSETTS 

PRE-HISTORIC SITES 



A few pre-Ustoric ates are added bj authority of Professor G. Frederick 
Wright, LI- D., a former Andorer pasbv. 

" Indian Ridge is a kame or esker, and was made famous in 1841 by Preadent 
Hitchcock's paper before the Association of Amoican Geologists and Natora^sts. 
The most accessIUe kame and kettle-b<de in the village of Aiido\-er is between the 
Cadmlic Cemetoy and the Oki Sooth Chnrch. Pmnp's Pond is the most famous 
ketde-bde in the town, and perhaps in die world, by reason of what has been written 
about it. Fine facial scratches may be found on tibe Xortii Andovo- road neariy 
(^iposite to the entrance ol Mr. Johnson's residence ; also on the rocks back of Pun- 
chard schooUioase, and in the vicinity of the schoolbouse in Scotland District, while 
some very delicate ones of great interest appear upon the exposed quartz crystals of 
Sonset Rock. Prospect Hill is <me of the best ^)ecimens of dramlins to be found 
anywhere in the world. Many boolders containing large crystals of light colored 
fdd^ar which have come from Lake Winnepesaukee are found within the \dllage 
limits, being often laid in die stone walls.'" 



LIST OF HISTORIC SITES IN THE NORTH PARISH 
MARKED BY NORTH ANDOVER CITIZENS. 



Site of Franklin Academy. 

Henry Osgood House: birthplace of Hon. Samuel O^ood, first postmaster 
general of the United States. 

House of CapL John Peabody who commanded a company in die Revolution- 
Site of the first Meeting House buOt in 164S. 

Home of Maj. John Adams who took an active part against Shay''s RebeQion. 
The site of the second Woolen Mill in the County and die diird in the Country. 

Phiffips Mansion, bmh in 1752 by Hon. Samuel Phillips. Once owned by 
Bishop Phillips Brooks. 

Home of CoL James Frye, who was at the taking of Loaisborg and at the fight 
at Bnnker Hill, also occupied by Chaplain Jonathan Frye. 

Home of CoL Samod Johnson, Rev(dati<Miary o&cer, of die Rev. Samuel John- 
son, Author. Pendope J<riinson was killed by die Inffians near diis house in Feb- 
ruary, 169S. 

*» Manaon House " of CoL Moody Bridges, officer in the Old French War and 
representative to die first Provincial Congress. Birthfdace of Gen. Isaac I. Stevens. 

The Bradstreet House. Home of Mr. Simon and &Irs. .\nne Bradstreet, Rev. 
Thomas and Rev. John Barnard and Rev. William Symmes, D. D. 

Klttredge Manson, Pro^iect Street, baik in 1784. Home of Dr. Thomas 
Rittredge, Surgeon of ist Mass. Regiment in the Revolutionary War. 



2SOTH ANNIVERSARY 1 73 



MANUFACTURES AND TRADES EXHIBIT 



While the hall at the Punchard School building was occu- 
pied in telling of Andover's past, the lower part of the Town 
House was given up to the display of the industrial Andover 
of the present. 

But a short time had been devoted to the development of 
this part of the celebration, yet the committee were able to 
make one of the most interesting features of the celebration. 
The following Andover firms and manufacturers were repre- 
sented in the display. 

Smith & Dove Manufacturing Co. — Exhibit of Shoe Thread, Twines and 
Carpet Yarns of many grades of fineness and finish. Also an interest- 
ing display of the Flax in its different processes of manufacture. 

M. T. Stevens & Sons, the Marland Mills. — Exhibit of Woolen Dress 
Goods including several hundred designs of soft wool Flannels and 
Novelties. 

Tver Rubber Co. — Exhibit of Rubber Goods, including Druggist Sundries, 
Atomizers, SjTinges, Hard Rubber Goods, Tubing, and many attrac- 
tive Rubber specialties. 

Ballardvale Mills. — Ejchibit of White Flannels of very fine quality and 
textiu-e, including a part of the Mills' World's Fair prize exhibit. 

Ballardvale Manufacturing Co. — Exhibit of Bronze Goods, Lamps and 
Ornamental Mantel Goods. 

Andover Press. — Exhibit of Book, Pamphlet and Artistic Job Printing. 

Ballardvale Lithia Co. — Exhibit of Lithia Water from the Ballardvale 
Spring. 

McDonald & Hannaford. — Exhibit of Harness and Horse Trappings. 



2^ (5«6ober gpreas 






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